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 Nicotine has been shown to maintain intravenous self-administration behaviour in humans and laboratory animals. However, factors critical in the initiation of nicotine self administration are not well defined. In particular genetic differences and effects of pre-exposure to nicotine have not been examined. Male Sprague-Dawley or Long-Evans rats were(More)
The present experiments were conducted to examine further the ability of GABAergic compounds to modify the reinforcing effects of cocaine. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, behaviour was maintained under a fixed-ratio (FR)-5 with a 240 s timeout (TO) multiple schedule of cocaine (0.66 mg/kg/infusion) and food (45 mg) in 180 min sessions. Once rats could reliably(More)
  Rationale: The route of nicotine administration between animal models and humans is very different and further investigation by determining levels of nicotine entering into the circulatory system is warranted. Objective: The present study addresses the validity of the rat self-administration procedure by comparing plasma levels of nicotine in the rat with(More)
Mice of the C56BL/6J strain were trained to discriminate between nicotine (1.2 mg/kg) and saline in a two-lever drug discrimination procedure under a tandem variable-interval 60 s fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food reinforcement. Mice of the same strain were trained in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments where drinking a saccharin or saline solution(More)
The ring-A-reduced progesterone derivative 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (tetrahydroprogesterone) is synthesized under normal physiological conditions in the brain and is a potent modulator of the GABA receptor. This neurosteroid has significant sedative and anxiolytic properties. Corticotropin-releasing hormone plays a major role in stress-induced(More)
The subtypes of nicotinic receptors at which the behavioural effects of nicotine originate are not fully understood. These experiments use mice lacking the beta2 subunit of nicotinic receptors to investigate its role in nicotine discrimination and conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Wild-type and mutant mice were trained either in a two-lever nicotine(More)
Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established(More)
Nicotine can increase stimulus detection, response rate and speed in the five-choice serial reaction time task, a rodent test of attention. In the present experiments, four other nicotinic agonists with different pharmacological profiles were compared in the same procedure. The response profile of epibatidine resembled that previously obtained with nicotine(More)
Rationale: Beneficial effects of nicotine on cognitive processes including attention have potential therapeutic uses and have been proposed as incentives for tobacco smoking. Objectives: To establish task conditions under which the effects of nicotine on attention are obtained reliably and to characterise such effects further. Methods: Rats were trained in(More)
The motivational properties of morphine and nicotine were investigated in an automated conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure using a two-compartment apparatus. The accuracy of the photocell recording system was assessed by correlation with direct observation. In a counterbalanced conditioning design, graded doses of morphine (0.1–3.2 mg/kg SC)(More)