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BACKGROUND Extinction of conditioned fear is thought to form a new safety memory that is expressed in the context in which the extinction learning took place. Rodent studies implicate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus in extinction recall and its modulation by context, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate the(More)
Conditioned fear responses to a tone previously paired with a shock diminish if the tone is repeatedly presented without the shock, a process known as extinction. Since Pavlov it has been hypothesized that extinction does not erase conditioning, but forms a new memory. Destruction of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, which consists of infralimbic and(More)
BACKGROUND A clinical characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is persistently elevated fear responses to stimuli associated with the traumatic event. The objective herein is to determine whether extinction of fear responses is impaired in PTSD and whether such impairment is related to dysfunctional activation of brain regions known to be(More)
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known: that is, an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three(More)
The psychology of extinction has been studied for decades. Approximately 10 years ago, however, there began a concerted effort to understand the neural circuits of extinction of fear conditioning, in both animals and humans. Progress during this period has been facilitated by a high degree of coordination between rodent and human researchers examining fear(More)
BACKGROUND Rodent studies implicate the prelimbic (PL) region of the medial prefrontal cortex in the expression of conditioned fear. Human studies suggest that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a role similar to PL in mediating or modulating fear responses. This study examined the role of dACC during fear conditioning in healthy humans with(More)
Recall of fear extinction, which is thought to aid in recovery from a psychologically traumatic event, is hypothesized to be deficient in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but this has not yet been demonstrated in the laboratory, nor has its origin been investigated. To address these two issues, 14 pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for combat(More)
Fear extinction is the decrease in conditioned fear responses that normally occurs when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented in the absence of the aversive unconditioned stimulus (US). Extinction does not erase the initial CS-US association, but is thought to form a new memory. After extinction training, extinction memory competes with(More)
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in fear extinction [Phelps, E. A., Delgado, M. R., Nearing, K. I. & Ledoux, J. E. (2004) Neuron 43, 897-905; Herry, C. & Garcia, R. (2003) Behav. Brain Res. 146, 89-96]. Here, we test the hypothesis that the cortical thickness of vmPFC regions is associated with how well healthy humans retain(More)
Gonadal hormones modulate fear acquisition, but less is known about the influence of gonadal hormones on fear extinction. We assessed sex differences and the influence of gonadal hormone fluctuations and exogenous manipulations of estrogen and progesterone on acquisition, extinction learning and extinction recall in a 3 day auditory fear conditioning and(More)