Mohammed Bensellam

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Survival and function of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells are markedly altered by changes in nutrient availability. In vitro, culture in 10 rather than 2 mmol/l glucose improves rodent beta cell survival and function, whereas glucose concentrations above 10 mmol/l are deleterious. To identify the mechanisms of such beta cell plasticity, we tested the(More)
Inadequate chaperone function relative to client protein load in the endoplasmic reticulum triggers an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), including the integrated stress response (ISR), the latter being also activated by other types of stresses. It is well established that pancreatic beta cells, which synthesise and secrete insulin upon nutrient(More)
Pancreatic beta-cells exposed to high glucose concentrations display altered gene expression, function, survival and growth that may contribute to the slow deterioration of the functional beta-cell mass in type 2 diabetes. These glucotoxic alterations may result from various types of stress imposed by the hyperglycaemic environment, including oxidative(More)
It is well established that regular physiological stimulation by glucose plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the β-cell differentiated phenotype. In contrast, prolonged or repeated exposure to elevated glucose concentrations both in vitro and in vivo exerts deleterious or toxic effects on the β-cell phenotype, a concept termed as glucotoxicity.(More)
The normal b-cell response to obesity-associated insulin resistance is hypersecretion of insulin. Type 2 diabetes develops in subjects with b-cells that are susceptible to failure. Here, we investigated the time-dependent gene expression changes in islets of diabetes-prone db/db and diabetes-resistant ob/ob mice. The expressions of adaptive unfolded protein(More)
Hypoxia may contribute to beta cell failure in type 2 diabetes and islet transplantation. The adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) is required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Here we investigated whether or not hypoxia regulates the UPR in beta cells and the role the adaptive UPR plays during hypoxic stress. Mouse islets and MIN6 cells were(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) have been implicated in β-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the UPR is also a fundamental mechanism required for β-cell adaptation and survival. The mechanisms regulating the transition from adaptive to apoptotic UPR remain to be clarified. Here, we(More)
Failure to secrete sufficient quantities of insulin is a pathological feature of type-1 and type-2 diabetes, and also reduces the success of islet cell transplantation. Here we demonstrate that Y1 receptor signaling inhibits insulin release in β-cells, and show that this can be pharmacologically exploited to boost insulin secretion. Transplanting islets(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) has been reported to be a critical positive regulator of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. The effects on islet cells and blood glucose levels when Sirt1 is deleted specifically in the pancreas are still unclear. METHODS This study examined islet glucose responsiveness, blood glucose levels,(More)
Oxidative stress is implicated in beta cell glucotoxicity in type 2 diabetes. Inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins are transcriptional regulators induced by hyperglycaemia in islets, but the mechanisms involved and their role in beta cells are not clear. Here we investigated whether or not oxidative stress regulates ID levels in beta cells and the(More)