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Monoclonal gammopathy is produced by neoplastic or non-neoplastic expansion of a clone of plasma cells or B lymphocytes. Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance is characterized by low levels of the monoclonal protein and a relatively small population of clonal lymphocytes or plasma cells in the bone marrow. In these cases, the patient is asymptomatic(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse consecutive cases of robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), present the incidence of nerve-sparing-related positive surgical margins (SM+), include visual cues that might assist in smoothly changing to the robotic platform, and discuss the scientific rationale for 'intersensory integration' which might explain the 'reverse(More)
At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factors are the universal cellular oxygen-sensitive transcription factors that activate a number of hypoxia responsive genes, some of which are responsible for protective cellular functions. During organ donation, allografts are exposed to significant periods of hypoxia and ischemia. Exploiting this pathway during donor management and(More)
UNLABELLED Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Active surveillance of small renal masses has traditionally been reserved for elderly patients deemed unfit for surgery or ablation. There is increasing evidence showing the safety of active surveillance in the management of small(More)
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a serious genetic disease characterized by cystic changes in the collecting ducts of the kidney and bile ducts within the liver. The gene for ARPKD (PKHD1) is located on chromosome 6p12 and encodes a protein called fibrocystin/polyductin (FPC), 1 of many proteins that are normally present at the(More)
Survivin belongs to a family of proteins, which serve as inhibitors of apoptosis. Survivin inhibits apoptosis by blocking activation of effector caspases in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Expression of survivin has been demonstrated in several malignant neoplasms and is generally associated with adverse prognosis. In the case of bladder(More)
Contradictory evidence has been published on the effects of steroid treatments on the outcomes of kidney and liver transplantation from brain dead (BD) donors. Our study aimed to evaluate this disparity by investigating the effect of prednisolone administration on BD rats. BD induction was performed in ventilated rats by inflating a Fogarty catheter placed(More)
Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common neoplasm of the kidney in children. It is an embryologic tumor that histologically mimics renal embryogenesis and is composed of a variable mixture of stromal, blastemal, and epithelial elements. Nephrogenic rests, generally considered to be precursor lesions of the WT, are foci of the embryonic metanephric tissue that(More)
Germ cell tumors of the testis may be divided into 3 broad categories according to age at presentation. The tumors in the pediatric age group include teratoma and yolk sac tumor. These tumors are generally not associated with convincing intratubular neoplasia. The second group consists of tumors presenting in third and fourth decade of life and include(More)