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no strains from Matlab were resistant to tetra-cycline, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulpha-methoxazole, furazolidone, and ciprofloxacin respectively. Prior to October 2004, most strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxa-zole and furazolidone but were uniformly sensitive to tetracycline, erythromycin, and cipro-floxacin. The first(More)
OBJECTIVE We identified a poor clinical response to treatment of cholera with a single 1 g dose of ciprofloxacin, a standard treatment for cholera. METHODS To determine reasons for the poor response and better therapeutic approaches we examined the minimal inhibitor concentration (MIC, n = 275) and disc-diffusion zone sizes (n = 205) for ciprofloxacin and(More)
BACKGROUND Severely malnourished children have high mortality rates. Death commonly occurs during the first 48 h after hospital admission, and has been attributed to faulty case-management. We developed a standardised protocol for acute-phase treatment of children with severe malnutrition and diarrhoea, with the aim of reducing mortality. METHODS We(More)
C hildhood diarrhoea still claims nearly 2 million lives each year and remains responsible for 18% of all child deaths [1,2]. Regardless of this, research interest in this disease has been steadily decreasing after the development of cost-effective interventions in the 1980s [3]. In addition, the amount of available research funds per disability-adjusted(More)
Despite gains in controlling mortality relating to diarrhoeal disease, the burden of disease remains unacceptably high. To refocus health research to target disease-burden reduction as the goal of research in child health, the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative developed a systematic strategy to rank health research options. This(More)
BACKGROUND Infections caused by multiply resistant Shigella species are a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Third World countries. The fluoroquinolone agent ciprofloxacin is active in vitro against these strains of bacteria, but has not been routinely used to treat acute childhood infections because of concern that quinolones may cause(More)
Flooding in Dhaka in July 2004 caused epidemics of diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) was almost as prevalent as Vibrio cholerae O1 in diarrheal stools. ETEC that produced heat-stable enterotoxin alone was most prevalent, and 78% of strains had colonization factors. Like V. cholerae O1, ETEC can cause epidemic diarrhea.
Vibrio cholerae O139 has recently emerged as the second etiologic agent of cholera in Asia. A study was carried out to evaluate the induction of specific immune responses to the organism in V. cholerae O139-infected patients. The immune responses to V. cholerae O139 Bengal were studied in patients by measuring antibody-secreting cells (ASC), as well as(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrheal illnesses remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with increasing recognition of long-term sequelae, including postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and growth faltering, as well as cognitive deficits in children. Identification of specific etiologic agents is often lacking. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that(More)