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This article presents preliminary stochastic estimates of the multi-variable human ankle mechanical impedance. We employed Anklebot, a rehabilitation robot for the ankle, to provide torque perturbations. Time histories of the torques in Dorsi-Plantar flexion (DP) and Inversion-Eversion (IE) directions and the associated angles of the ankle were recorded.(More)
This paper describes the design of an ankle-foot robotic prosthesis controllable in the sagittal and frontal planes. The prosthesis was designed to meet the mechanical characteristics of the human ankle including power, range of motion, and weight. To transfer the power from the motors and gearboxes to the ankle-foot mechanism, a Bowden cable system was(More)
This paper reports quantification of multivariable static ankle mechanical impedance when muscles were active. Repetitive measurements using a highly backdrivable therapeutic robot combined with robust function approximation methods enabled reliable characterization of the nonlinear torque-angle relation at the ankle in two coupled degrees of freedom(More)
This article compares stochastic estimates of multi-variable human ankle mechanical impedance when ankle muscles were fully relaxed, actively generating ankle torque or co-contracting antagonistically. We employed Anklebot, a rehabilitation robot for the ankle, to provide torque perturbations. Muscle activation levels were monitored electromyographically(More)
Characterization of multi-variable ankle mechanical impedance is crucial to understanding how the ankle supports lower-extremity function during interaction with the environment. This paper reports quantification of steady-state ankle impedance when muscles were active. Vector field approximation of repetitive measurements of the torque-angle relation in(More)
An orthogonal eigenstructure control method with collocated actuators and sensors was recently developed by the authors. In this paper the application of the method is extended beyond the collocation of the actuators and sensors, including the cases that different numbers of actuators and sensors are used. Orthogonal eigenstructure control is an output(More)
This paper describes a finite state machine to control an ankle-foot prosthesis with two degrees of freedom (DOF) in the sagittal and frontal planes. Strain gauges were installed in the foot to provide ground reaction torques feedback for impedance and admittance controllers to be used at heel-strike and push-off of the gait, respectively. The quasi-static(More)
This article compares the three-dimensional angles of the ankle during step turn and straight walking. We used an infrared camera system (Qualisys Oqus ®) to track the trajectories and angles of the foot and leg at different stages of the gait. The range of motion (ROM) of the ankle during stance periods was estimated for both straight step and step turn.(More)
Orthogonal eigenstructure control is a novel active control method for vibration suppression in multi-input multi-output linear systems. This method is based on finding an output feedback control gain matrix in such a way that the closed-loop eigenvectors are almost orthogonal to the open-loop ones. Singular value decomposition is used to find the matrix,(More)