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—Mobile ad-hoc networks are vulnerable to several types of malicious routing attacks, black hole is one of those, where a malicious node advertise to have the shortest path to all other nodes in the network by the means of sending fake routing reply. As a result the destinations are deprived of desired information. In this paper, we propose a method AODV(More)
Interconnection network is a critical component of high-performance computing architecture and application co-design. For many scientific applications, the increasing communication complexity poses a serious concern as it may hinder the scaling properties of these applications on novel architectures. It is apparent that a scalable, efficient, and accurate(More)
A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that can has no fixed or predetermined topology, with mobile nodes and dynamic membership changes. A self-organizing network is a network that can automatically extend, change, configure and optimize its topology, coverage, capacity, cell size, and channel allocation, based on changes in(More)
As the technology evolves, emergence of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) for both printed and handwritten documents of any language is obvious. In the process of developing an OCR for languages like Hindi, Bengali, Marathi that are among top 15, the most spoken language of the world, the task of skew correction still remains a challenging one as fewer(More)
There are immense efforts to design a complete OCR for most of the world's leading languages, however, multilingual documents either of handwritten or of printed form. As a united attempt, Unicode based OCRs were studied mostly with some positive outcomes, despite the fact that a large character set slows down the recognition significantly. In this paper,(More)
Conventional congestion control methods (e.g. DROP TAIL) discards all received packets after the queue is full moreover results in low-network performance. To address this problem, RED was proposed to improve the performance of TCP connections. As a queue management mechanism, it drops packets in the considered router buffer to adjust the network traffic
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