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We investigated the effects of microamperage electrical stimulation (MES) on the healing of skin incision in rabbits. Thirty male adult rabbits were randomly divided into sham-treated and experimental groups. Each group was divided into three subgroups, based on the duration of experiment (4, 7, and 15 days). A full-thickness incision was made on the skin(More)
A 2-degree of freedom microelectromechanical systems nanopositioner designed for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The device is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator-based process and is designed as a parallel kinematic mechanism. It contains a central scan table and two sets of electrostatic comb actuators along each orthogonal axis,(More)
There is a need for 2 DOF scanners in a variety of applications in nanotechnology, particularly in the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). An ideal AFM stage should have a high resonance frequency, low cross coupling between the two perpendicular axes of motion and be capable of moving over a large range in either direction. To achieve these specifications,(More)
— We demonstrate the application of internal model control for accurate tracking of spiral scan trajectories, where the reference signals are orthogonal sinusoids whose amplitudes linearly vary with time. The plant is a 2-D microelectromechan-ical system nanopositioner equipped with in situ differential electrothermal sensors and electrostatic actuators.(More)
A new microelectromechanical systems-based 2-degree-of-freedom (DoF) scanner with an integrated cantilever for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The silicon cantilever features a layer of piezoelectric material to facilitate its use for tapping mode AFM and enable simultaneous deflection sensing. Electrostatic actuators and electrothermal(More)
This paper presents a novel application of internal model control (IMC) for high-precision tracking of spiral reference signals generated by single-tone sine waves. In contrast to the existing spiral tracking control methods, the IMC approach provides zero steady-state tracking error for linear-time-invariant plants. An application of the proposed method is(More)
A 2 degree of freedom microelectromechanical system (MEMS) nanopositioner is presented in this paper. The nanopositioner is fabricated using a standard silicon-on-insulator process. The device demonstrates a bidirectional displacement in two orthogonal directions. As the displacement sensing mechanism, bulk piezoresistivity of tilted clamped-guided beams is(More)