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OBJECTIVE To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in persons 40 years and older. METHODS Counts of persons with phakic eyes with and without spherical equivalent refractive error in the worse eye of +3 diopters (D) or greater, -1 D or less, and -5 D or less were obtained from population-based eye surveys in strata of gender, race/ethnicity, and(More)
Myopia and hyperopia are at opposite ends of the continuum of refraction, the measure of the eye's ability to focus light, which is an important cause of visual impairment (when aberrant) and is a highly heritable trait. We conducted a genome-wide association study for refractive error in 4,270 individuals from the TwinsUK cohort. We identified SNPs on(More)
The retinal vasculature allows direct noninvasive visualization of the body's mircrovasculature. Because the retina and other end organs (brain and kidney) share similar anatomical features and physiological properties, the retinal vessels offer a unique and easily accessible window to study the health and disease of the human microcirculation. Advanced(More)
Generalized retinal arteriolar narrowing is an important sign of systemic hypertension, and a lower arteriolar:venular diameter ratio predicts the risk of hypertension. We investigated whether this association was based on arteriolar or venular diameters or both. This study was based on the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study (1990-1993) and(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with incident age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS The study was performed within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 4822 subjects who at baseline were aged 55 years more, were free of ARM,(More)
PURPOSE To study the relationship between baseline spherical equivalents (SphE) of refraction and prevalent as well as incident age-related maculopathy (pARM and iARM, respectively). METHODS The study was performed as part of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. The SphE (in diopters), measured with autorefraction and(More)
BACKGROUND Overweight and obesity are thought to significantly influence a person's risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly via its effect on the microvasculature. Retinal vascular caliber is a surrogate marker of microvascular disease and a predictor of cardiovascular events. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the(More)
PURPOSE A lower retinal arteriolar-to-venular ratio (AVR) has been suggested to reflect generalized arteriolar narrowing and to predict the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The contribution of the separate arteriolar and venular diameters to this AVR is unknown. Thus, associations between retinal arteriolar and venular diameters, and the AVR on the one hand(More)
The direct visualization of retinal vessels provides a unique opportunity to study cerebral small vessel disease, because these vessels share many features. It was reported that persons with smaller retinal arteriolar-to-venular ratio tended to have more white matter lesions on MRI. It is unclear whether this is due to arteriolar narrowing or venular(More)