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Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), neuronal cell death remains a problem that is frequently found in the brains of HIV-1-infected patients. HAART has successfully prevented many of the former end-stage complications of AIDS, however, with increased survival times, the prevalence of minor HIV-1 associated cognitive impairment(More)
Expression of the viral protein R, Vpr, of HIV-1 affects many biological events in host cells including cell cycle progression, and modulates HIV-1 gene transcription. Earlier studies implicating the cellular protein p21(WAF1) (p21) in regulation of HIV-1 transcription, led us to investigate the functional and physical interaction of Vpr and p21. Our(More)
The tumor suppressor p53 is an important cellular protein, which controls cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation is one of the mechanisms by which p53 is regulated. Here we report the interaction of p53 with another key regulator, cdk9, which together with cyclin T1 forms the positive transcription elongation complex, p-TEFb. This complex cooperates with(More)
BACKGROUND p53 plays an important role in many areas of cellular physiology and biology, ranging from cellular development and differentiation to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Many of its functions are attributed to its role in assuring proper cellular division. However, since the establishment of its role in cell cycle arrest, damage repair, and(More)
Transcriptional regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a complex event that requires the cooperative action of both viral (e.g. Tat) and cellular (e.g. C/EBPbeta, NF-kappaB) factors. The HIV-1 Tat protein recruits the human positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, consisting of cdk9 and cyclin T1, to the HIV-1(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (vpr) gene is an evolutionarily conserved gene among the primate lentiviruses. Several functions are attributed to Vpr including the ability to cause cell death, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage. The Vpr domain responsible for DNA damage as well as the mechanism(s) through which Vpr(More)
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