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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected patients are at risk of acquiring viral hepatitis, due to common routes of transmission. As the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections and improved survival, viral hepatitis emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health concern in developing countries. HEV transmission occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route. It has also been reported that blood donors are potentially able to cause transfusion-associated hepatitis E in endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HEV infection(More)
BACKGROUND T-helper (Th) lymphocyte cytokine production may be important in the immune pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Th1 cytokines such as; interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) are necessary for host antiviral immune responses, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) can inhibit the development of these effector mechanisms.(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter region of the interleukin (IL)-10 genes have a role in determining hepatitis B virus (HBV) outcome. OBJECTIVES This study evaluates the correlation between HBV infection and SNP in IL-10 gene promoter. PATIENTS AND METHODS Ninety-six HBV-infected patients (32 chronic hepatitis B infection(More)
BACKGROUND Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) or HCV-RNA in the serum. Low concentrations of HCV-RNA may be detected in PBMCs of hemodialysis (HD) patients and this could have a great impact on the(More)
CONTEXT The clinical outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is variable, ranging from spontaneous recovery to an inactive carrier state, chronic hepatitis, occult HBV infection, liver cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This variable pattern and clinical outcomes of the infection were mainly determined by virological and(More)
Human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects approximately 90 % of the general population as a subclinical or mild infection. In immunosuppressed patients, such as HIV cases, BKV may be reactivated resulting hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, there are limited studies on prevalence and molecular(More)
We greatly enjoyed reading the excellent review by Hol-linger and colleagues on occult hepatitis B infection in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients (1). As Hollinger et al. mentioned in their review, few studies have shown the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in HD patients. Due to the parenteral transmission of HBV, HD patients are at(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus dependent on hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication. Due to HDV transmission routes, patients undergoing hemodialysis and those with HIV infection are at risk of acquiring HDV. OBJECTIVES This study was aimed to determine the frequency and genotype of HDV infection among patients with HIV(More)
We greatly enjoyed reading the article by Zahedi et al. (1) about the prevalence of viral hepatitis and human immu-nodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in hemodialysis (HD) patients in SouthEast of Iran. They reported that hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) were found in 7 % of cases individually. Anti-HIV and hepatitis D(More)