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The sequence data (H. Okamoto et al., Hepatol. Res. 10:1-16, 1998) of a newly discovered single-stranded DNA virus, TT virus (TTV), showed that it did not have the terminal structure typical of a parvovirus. Elucidation of the complete genome structure was necessary to understand the nature of TTV. We obtained a 1.0-kb amplified product from serum samples(More)
Although echovirus 22 is presently classified as a member of the enterovirus group in the family of picornaviruses, it has been reported to have exceptional biological properties when compared with other representatives of the group. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the echovirus 22 (Harris strain) genome, which appears to be(More)
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect and differentiate picornaviruses (PVs), using primers homologous to the 5' non-coding and VP2 regions of the PV genome. The PCR resulted in a 530 bp PCR product for human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and a 650 bp product for polioviruses, coxsackieviruses (CV) or echoviruses. The PCR assay could detect as(More)
APOBEC3G (APO3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that is incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles. We report here that viral RNA promotes stable association of APO3G with HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes (NPC). A target sequence located within the 5'-untranslated region of the HIV-1 RNA was identified to be necessary and sufficient(More)
HIV-1 and other retroviruses occasionally undergo hypermutation, characterized by a high rate of G-to-A substitution. Recently, the human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), first identified as CEM15, was shown to be packaged into retroviral virions and to deaminate deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in newly(More)
APOBEC3G (APO3G) is a cellular cytidine deaminase with potent antiviral activity. Initial studies of the function of APO3G demonstrated extensive mutation of the viral genome, suggesting a model in which APO3G's antiviral activity is due to hypermutation of the viral genome. Recent studies, however, found that deaminase-defective APO3G mutants transiently(More)
APOBEC3F (A3F) is a member of the family of cytidine deaminases that is often coexpressed with APOBEC3G (A3G) in cells susceptible to HIV infection. A3F has been shown to have strong antiviral activity in transient-expression studies, and together with A3G, it is considered the most potent cytidine deaminase targeting HIV. Previous analyses suggested that(More)
Efficient incorporation of the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (APO3G) into HIV-1 virions is necessary for its antiviral activity. Even though cellular RNAs are known to be non-specifically incorporated into virus particles, we have previously found that encapsidation of APO3G into HIV-1 virions is specifically enhanced by viral genomic RNA.(More)
Vif is a primate lentiviral accessory protein that is crucial for viral infectivity. Vif counteracts the antiviral activity of host deaminases such as APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F. We now report a novel function of African green monkey simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm) Vif that promotes replication of SIVagm in human cells lacking detectable deaminase(More)