Mohammad Anwar Khan

Learn More
The sequence data (H. Okamoto et al., Hepatol. Res. 10:1-16, 1998) of a newly discovered single-stranded DNA virus, TT virus (TTV), showed that it did not have the terminal structure typical of a parvovirus. Elucidation of the complete genome structure was necessary to understand the nature of TTV. We obtained a 1.0-kb amplified product from serum samples(More)
Recent sequence analysis revealed that the human pathogen echovirus 22 (EV22) is genetically distant from all the other picornaviruses studied to date (T. Hyypiä, C. Horsnell, M. Maaronen, M. Khan, N. Kalkkinen, P. Auvinen, L. Kinnunen, and G. Stanway, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:8847-8851, 1992). We have further characterized the biological properties of(More)
Although echovirus 22 is presently classified as a member of the enterovirus group in the family of picornaviruses, it has been reported to have exceptional biological properties when compared with other representatives of the group. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the echovirus 22 (Harris strain) genome, which appears to be(More)
APOBEC3G (APO3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that is incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles. We report here that viral RNA promotes stable association of APO3G with HIV-1 nucleoprotein complexes (NPC). A target sequence located within the 5'-untranslated region of the HIV-1 RNA was identified to be necessary and sufficient(More)
Replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in most primary cells and some immortalized T-cell lines depends on the activity of the viral infectivity factor (Vif). Vif has the ability to counteract a cellular inhibitor, recently identified as CEM15, that blocks infectivity of Vif-defective HIV-1 variants. CEM15 is identical to APOBEC3G and(More)
HIV-1 and other retroviruses occasionally undergo hypermutation, characterized by a high rate of G-to-A substitution. Recently, the human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), first identified as CEM15, was shown to be packaged into retroviral virions and to deaminate deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in newly(More)
APOBEC3G (APO3G) is a cellular cytidine deaminase with potent antiviral activity. Initial studies of the function of APO3G demonstrated extensive mutation of the viral genome, suggesting a model in which APO3G's antiviral activity is due to hypermutation of the viral genome. Recent studies, however, found that deaminase-defective APO3G mutants transiently(More)
APOBEC3 (A3) proteins constitute a family of cytidine deaminases that provide intracellular resistance to retrovirus replication and to transposition of endogenous retroelements. A3A has significant homology to the C-terminus of A3G but has only a single cytidine deaminase active site (CDA), unlike A3G, which has a second N-terminal CDA previously found to(More)
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect and differentiate picornaviruses (PVs), using primers homologous to the 5' non-coding and VP2 regions of the PV genome. The PCR resulted in a 530 bp PCR product for human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and a 650 bp product for polioviruses, coxsackieviruses (CV) or echoviruses. The PCR assay could detect as(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein plays a critical role in the production of infectious virions. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of small amounts of Vif in virus particles. However, Vif packaging was assumed to be nonspecific, and its functional significance has been questioned. We now report that packaging of Vif(More)