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We propose a new hardware architecture for cost-and size-effective implementation of massive MIMO transmitters based on load modulation that is fully compatible with standard receiver architectures. With load modulation, a massive MIMO transmitter can be driven by a single power amplifier operating at constant envelope. The various data streams are(More)
This paper presents the current state-of-the-art of massive antenna array architectures with significant front-end hardware savings, as an enabler for future small and powerful cell nodes that will be able to carry massive MIMO technology. Radio frequency (RF) hardware architectures with a single power amplifier are reviewed, compared, and found superior to(More)
We consider the total capacity of a Gaussian multiple-access MIMO channel with a linear array of R receive antennas and T distributed transmit antennas. If the spatial distribution of transmit antennas weighed by their path loss and marginalized to a sphere around the receive array is proportional to the ratio of receive antenna directivity to transmit(More)
A general class of nonlinear Least Square Error (LSE) precoders in multi-user multiple-input multiple-output systems is analyzed using the replica method from statistical mechanics. A single cell downlink channel with $N$ transmit antennas at the base station and $K$ single-antenna users is considered. The data symbols are assumed to be iid Gaussian and the(More)
We analyze a general class of nonlinear precoders called Least Square Error (LSE) precoders in multiuser multiple-input multiple-output broadcast channels using the replica method from statistical physics. In LSE precoders, signal on each antenna at base station is limited to be in a predefined set. This predefined set is used to model several hardware(More)