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We propose a new hardware architecture for cost-and size-effective implementation of massive MIMO transmitters based on load modulation that is fully compatible with standard receiver architectures. With load modulation, a massive MIMO transmitter can be driven by a single power amplifier operating at constant envelope. The various data streams are(More)
This paper presents the current state-of-the-art of massive antenna array architectures with significant front-end hardware savings, as an enabler for future small and powerful cell nodes that will be able to carry massive MIMO technology. Radio frequency (RF) hardware architectures with a single power amplifier are reviewed, compared, and found superior to(More)
We consider the total capacity of a Gaussian multiple-access MIMO channel with a linear array of R receive antennas and T distributed transmit antennas. If the spatial distribution of transmit antennas weighed by their path loss and marginalized to a sphere around the receive array is proportional to the ratio of receive antenna directivity to transmit(More)
A general class of nonlinear Least Square Error (LSE) precoders in multi-user multiple-input multiple-output systems is analyzed using the replica method from statistical mechanics. A single cell downlink channel with $N$ transmit antennas at the base station and $K$ single-antenna users is considered. The data symbols are assumed to be iid Gaussian and the(More)
We extend the result by Tse and Verdú on the optimum asymptotic multiuser efficiency of randomly spread code division multiple access (CDMA) with binary phase shift keying input. Random Gaussian and random binary antipodal spreading are considered. We obtain the optimum asymptotic multiuser efficiency of a K-user system with spreading gain N when K(More)