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BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
BACKGROUND High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone is the most common therapeutic modality to treat acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (MS). Various cardiac arrhythmias have been reported during corticosteroid pulse therapy. This study was conducted to detect cardiac rhythm changes in patients with MS while receiving high dose methylprednisolone. (More)
BACKGROUND Iran was formerly considered to be located in a low prevalence zone for multiple sclerosis (MS). During the last decade the number of patients has increased. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of MS in the capital city of the country. METHODS We re-evaluated the files of all patients who had registered at the Iranian Multiple(More)
Smart superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most promising candidate for theragnosis (i.e., diagnosis and treatment) of multiple sclerosis. A deep understanding of the dynamics of the in vivo neuropathology of multiple sclerosis can be achieved by improving the efficiency of various medical techniques (e.g., positron emission(More)
OBJECT The goal of this paper was to investigate the long-term outcome and the possible prognostic factors that might have influenced the persistence of posttraumatic epilepsy after penetrating head injuries sustained during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). METHODS In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 189 patients who sustained penetrating(More)
BACKGROUND Adipocytokines may be involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as other autoimmune and inflammatory-related diseases. This study aims to compare levels of resistin, visfatin and leptin in three subgroups of MS patients with healthy subjects and also to study their relationship with Foxp3 expression and levels of several pro-inflammatory(More)
The caveolin 1 gene (CAV1) is over-expressed in experimental animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS). Increased expression of this gene has also been reported in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Loss of this gene, on the other hand, has recently been reported to be associated with neruodegeneration. We have recently reported skew in the homozygote(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive paraclinical test for diagnosis and assessment of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is often used to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. The formation of new T2-hyperintense MRI lesions is commonly used to measure disease activity, but lacks specificity because edema, inflammation, gliosis, and(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a severe inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with distinguishing features from multiple sclerosis (MS). NMO has an unknown etiology with poor prognosis in which anti-aquaporin-4 receptor IgG seems to play a major role. The purpose of this study is to represent a clinical and demographic(More)