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BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary(More)
BACKGROUND The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether(More)
BACKGROUND Iran was formerly considered to be located in a low prevalence zone for multiple sclerosis (MS). During the last decade the number of patients has increased. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of MS in the capital city of the country. METHODS We re-evaluated the files of all patients who had registered at the Iranian Multiple(More)
BACKGROUND High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone is the most common therapeutic modality to treat acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (MS). Various cardiac arrhythmias have been reported during corticosteroid pulse therapy. This study was conducted to detect cardiac rhythm changes in patients with MS while receiving high dose methylprednisolone. (More)
BACKGROUND The frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still undetermined in Tehran. We conducted this survey to assess the incidence trend and point prevalence of MS on March 20, 2009, in Tehran province, Iran. METHODS Data for patients with a definite diagnosis of MS were obtained from the Iranian MS Society (IMSS). The annual incidence rates were(More)
Smart superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are the most promising candidate for theragnosis (i.e., diagnosis and treatment) of multiple sclerosis. A deep understanding of the dynamics of the in vivo neuropathology of multiple sclerosis can be achieved by improving the efficiency of various medical techniques (e.g., positron emission(More)
Natalizumab is an approved medication for highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) may occur as a severe side effect of this drug. Here, we describe pathological and radiological characteristics of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), which occurs in natalizumab-associated PML after the cessation(More)
BACKGROUND Adipocytokines may be involved in multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as other autoimmune and inflammatory-related diseases. This study aims to compare levels of resistin, visfatin and leptin in three subgroups of MS patients with healthy subjects and also to study their relationship with Foxp3 expression and levels of several pro-inflammatory(More)
OBJECT The goal of this paper was to investigate the long-term outcome and the possible prognostic factors that might have influenced the persistence of posttraumatic epilepsy after penetrating head injuries sustained during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). METHODS In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated 189 patients who sustained penetrating(More)