Mohamed Tarek M. Shata

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Sporadic cases of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in persons exposed to hepatitis C (HCV) but evidently uninfected have been reported. To further define this, we measured CMI in individuals without evidence of HCV infection, that is, negative for HCV-antibodies (anti-HCV) and RNA, residing in a rural Egyptian community where prevalence of anti-HCV was 24%.(More)
BACKGROUND Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens in adults without seroconversion or viremia are biomarkers for prior transient infection. We investigated HCV-specific CMI responses in seronegative children living with HCV-infected siblings. METHODS Children 3-18 years of age living with HCV-infected siblings were(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in many developing countries. In Egypt, HEV seroprevalence is among the highest in the world; however, only a very limited number of Egyptian HEV sequences are currently available. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to determine the HEV genotype(s) currently circulating in(More)
Humans chronically infected with schistosomiasis usually have impaired parasite Ag-specific lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production that may facilitate persistence of the parasite while producing little clinical disease. The mechanisms that contribute to the immunologic hyporesponsiveness in these patients remain undefined. IL-10 has been shown to(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes large-scale epidemics of acute viral hepatitis, particularly in developing countries. In men and non-pregnant women, the disease is usually self-limited and has a case-fatality rate of less than <0.1%. However, in pregnant women, particularly from certain geographical areas in India, HEV(More)
Given the failures of nonreplicating vaccines against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we hypothesized that a replicating viral vector may provide protective immunity. Four chimpanzees were immunized transdermally twice with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVV) expressing HCV genes. After challenge with 24 50% chimpanzee infective doses of(More)
An open question for hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine development is whether the various genotypes of this virus protect against the development of chronic infection after heterologous infection with different genotypes. We approached this question by challenging chimpanzees that had recovered from HCV genotype 1a or 1b infection with 6 heterologous(More)
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonellae and Shigellae have shown promise as vaccine vectors in experimental animal models. Although disappointing results in humans and non-human primates stalled the development of this vaccination strategy, interest in this approach was reinvigorated recently by the development of bacterial(More)
Since the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the late 1980s, there has been an explosion of information regarding its natural history, treatment, and replication cycle. Nonetheless, there are still relatively few data regarding acute HCV infection. By convention, the term acute hepatitis refers to the presence of clinical signs or symptoms of(More)
Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is characterized by persistent detectable levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA in the serum. In contrast, HBsAg is not detectable during occult HBV infection, despite the presence of HBV DNA. An altered host immune response could play a role in the development of occult HBV infection; however,(More)