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OBJECTIVE Results of reliability and agreement studies are intended to provide information about the amount of error inherent in any diagnosis, score, or measurement. The level of reliability and agreement among users of scales, instruments, or classifications is widely unknown. Therefore, there is a need for rigorously conducted interrater and intrarater(More)
BACKGROUND Although identifying individuals who are at increased risk of dying during heat waves and instituting protective measures represent an established strategy, the evidence supporting the components of this strategy and their strengths has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies on risk and protective factors in(More)
BACKGROUND Nitrate and atrazine are two chemicals that are heavily used in certain sectors of agriculture. They are suspected to be associated with the development of certain types of tumours. METHODS Existing data were obtained on the incidence of specific types of cancers, contamination of drinking water with atrazine and nitrate, and related(More)
Variations in the sero-prevalence of antibody to brucella infection by cow, farm and area factors were investigated for three contrasting districts in Kenya: Samburu, an arid and pastoral area: Kiambu, a tropical highland area; and Kilifi, a typical tropical coastal area. Cattle were selected by a two-stage cluster sampling procedure and visited once(More)
The objective of this study was to use several methods to describe the age patterns for risk of death in selected breeds of dogs insured for life in a Swedish animal-insurance company in 1996. Data on eight breeds were analyzed for age at death (including euthanasia). If dogs left the insurance for reasons other than death, they were regarded as censored.(More)
This study investigated the distribution of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in herds of cattle in Ireland over the years 1996 through 2000, prior to the introduction of widespread active surveillance. Mappings of index herds, herd density, and standardized morbidity ratios, by county, were employed to help visualize areas of potential clustering of(More)
The aim of this study was to identify the impact of various prognostic factors in the management of uterine sarcoma. Fifty-nine patients with uterine sarcoma were treated at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center between 1980 and 1997. Forty-three patients (73%) were treated by total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 7(More)
Procedures are developed and compared for testing the equality of two dependent kappa statistics in the case of two raters and a dichotomous outcome variable. Such problems may arise when each of a sample of subjects are rated under two distinct settings, and it is of interest to compare the observed levels of inter-observer and intra-observer agreement.(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP) and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous(More)