Learn More
Estrogen appears to play a central role in the immune response and immune-mediated diseases. Estrogen receptors are expressed in a variety of immunocompetent cells, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and macrophages. Clinical observations indicate that some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, frequently remit during(More)
Abnormal accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) is an important mechanism of tumor immune evasion. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) has also been shown in non-tumor bearing animals to cause transient surges in MDSC. Knowledge of MDSC is primarily based on preclinical work, and to date only few published studies have involved cancer patients. The goal(More)
A larger number of medicinal plants and their purified constituents have been shown beneficial therapeutic potentials. Seeds of Nigella sativa, a dicotyledon of the Ranunculaceae family, have been employed for thousands of years as a spice and food preservative. The oil and seed constituents, in particular thymoquinine (TQ), have shown potential medicinal(More)
EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) is a cell surface molecule that is known to be highly expressed in colon and other epithelial carcinomas. EpCAM is involved in cell-to-cell adhesion and has been the target of antibody therapy in several clinical trials. To assess the value of EpCAM as a novel target for breast cancer gene therapy, we performed(More)
BACKGROUND Although an immunomodulatory role for estrogens has long been demonstrated by experimental and clinical observations, the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect on T cells has not been clearly defined. METHODS In this study we analyzed the effects of beta-estradiol (E2), at its contraceptive dose, on the delayed-type hypersensitivity(More)
Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe,(More)
Effective antitumor immunity requires the generation and persistence of functional tumor-specific T-cell responses. Among the critical factors that often control these responses is how the antigen is delivered and presented to T cells. The use of peptide-based vaccination has been found to be a promising means to induce antitumor T-cell responses but with(More)
The systemic administration of IL-2 can act as a potent adjuvant for T cell-directed vaccine strategies. However, not only is the administration of IL-2 potentially toxic, but recent evidence suggests that it may also paradoxically limit the duration and magnitude of the cytotoxic T cell response. A recently identified cytokine, IL-15, shares many(More)
Given the self nature of cancer, anti-tumor immune response is weak. As such, acute inflammation induced by microbial products can induce signals that result in initiation of an inflammatory cascade that helps activation of immune cells. We aimed to compare the nature and magnitude of acute inflammation induced by toll-like receptor ligands (TLRLs) on the(More)