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Co-infections are very common in nature and occur when hosts are infected by two or more different pathogens either by simultaneous or secondary infections so that two or more infectious agents are active together in the same host. Co-infections have a fundamental effect and can alter the course and the severity of different fish diseases. However,(More)
Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) is a primary host in the two-host life cycle of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the etiological agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) in salmonids. Overtly infected F. sultana colonies were collected from River Kamp (Lower Austria), following the first PKD outbreak affecting(More)
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Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) was diagnosed in juvenile autochthonous brown trout Salmo trutta for the first time in Austria during summer 2014. Cytology showed Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae sporoblasts, and histology revealed sporogonic (coelozoic) and extrasporogonic (histozoic) stages. Analysis of malacosporean ribosomal small subunit revealed that(More)
Myxobolus cerebralis is a cnidarian-myxozoan parasite that causes salmonid whirling disease. M. cerebralis alternates between two hosts: (1) a vertebrate salmonid and (2) an invertebrate oligochaete, Tubifex tubifex. There is no successful treatment for salmonid whirling disease. MyxSP-1 is a M. cerebralis serine protease implicated in whirling disease(More)
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