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In women and men, an important proportion of estrogens and androgens are synthesized locally at their site of action in peripheral target tissues. This new field of endocrinology has been called intracrinology. In postmenopausal women, 100% of active sex steroids are synthesized in peripheral target tissues from inactive steroid precursors while, in adult(More)
PC4 is a member of the proprotein convertase family of serine proteases implicated in the processing of a variety of polypeptides including prohormones, proneuropeptides, and cell surface proteins. In rodents, PC4 transcripts have been detected in spermatocytes and round spermatids exclusively, suggesting a reproductive function for this enzyme. In an(More)
Androgens play an important role in the development and physiology of the normal prostate as well as in prostate cancer cell proliferation. Comparison of the mRNA expression profiles of control and R1881-treated cultures of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells using cDNA subtraction led to the identification of a novel transcription factor that we named(More)
Sex steroids play an important role in skin morphology and physiology. To evaluate the specific effects of sex steroids, the thickness of each skin layer was measured in intact and gonadectomized (GDX) male and female mice, as well as in GDX animals treated for 3 wk with 17beta-estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), or their precursor(More)
Desert hedgehog (Dhh) signaling plays an essential role in the normal development of the testis and in the process of spermatogenesis. Little is known about the involvement in spermatogenesis of the prototypic member of the family, Ptc1, which acts to suppress hedgehog signaling through Smoothened (Smo). Here, we have examined the expression of Ptc1, Smo,(More)
In most developed countries, prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. The extent to which the marked racial/ethnic difference in its incidence rate is attributable to screening methods, environmental, hormonal and/or genetic factors remains unknown. A positive family history is among the strongest epidemiological risk factors for(More)
To better define the role of estrogens in reproductive functions, we have proceeded to the immunocytochemical localization of the estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and the recently discovered ERbeta+, in human reproductive tissues. In the ovary, ERbeta+ immunoreactivity was found in nuclei of granulosa cells of growing follicles at all stages from(More)
Myocardium lacks the ability to regenerate following injury. This is in contrast to skeletal muscle (SKM), in which capacity for tissue repair is attributed to the presence of satellite cells. It was hypothesized that SKM satellite cells multiplied in vitro could be used to repair injured heart muscle. Fourteen dogs underwent explantation of the anterior(More)