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Spontaneous eye movements as well as visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive cervical reflexes which contribute to gaze stabilization were investigated in the chameleon using the magnetic search-coil technique. The oculomotor range of each eye was very large (180 deg horizontally x 80 deg vertically). Spontaneous ocular saccades were independent in the two(More)
An immunocytochemical method, using glutaraldehyde fixation and an antiserum developed against a GABA-glutaraldehyde protein conjugate, permitted direct visualization of GABAergic structures in the brain of a reptile (chameleon). GABA immunoreactive cell bodies and nerve terminals were observed to be evenly distributed throughout the forebrain and midbrain.(More)
Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to investigate pregnancy outcomes in Somali-born women compared with those women born in each of the six receiving countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, Norway and Sweden. DESIGN Meta-analyses of routinely collected data on confinements and births. SETTING National or regional perinatal datasets spanning 3-6 years(More)
The topography and localization of motoneurons innervating the six extraocular muscles in the chameleon (Chamaeleo chameleon) was studied following HRP injection in each of these individual muscles. Four muscles were innervated ipsilaterally: medial rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique and lateral rectus. The medial rectus muscle was innervated by the(More)
Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have(More)
The aim of the present study was to analyze the neurochemical properties of the centrifugal visual system (CVS) of the quail using an immunohistochemical approach by testing 16 neuropeptides (angiotensin: ANG, bradykinin: BK, cholecystokinin, dynorphin, L and M-enkephalin, beta-endorphin: beta-END, galanin, alpha-neoendorphin, neurokinin A, neuropeptide Y(More)
An immunohistochemical method, using glutaraldehyde fixation and a highly specific monoclonal antibody recently synthetized against dopamine (DA)-glutaraldehyde protein conjugate, permitted direct visualization of DA structures in the brainstem and spinal cord of a reptile (Chameleon). DA-immunoreactive cell bodies occurred in some contiguous areas of the(More)
Chameleons display a number of well-described physiological peculiarities of their visual system, but there is no information on the topography of the retinal ganglion cell layer. In the present study, ganglion cell density of the chameleon retina was constructed from whole mounts of the retina stained with cresyl violet. For the identification of ganglion(More)
The distribution of vasopressin (VP)-like and oxytocin (OX)-like immunoreactivities was investigated in the chameleon brain with antisera specific for either peptide. VP-like and OX-like neurons are found only in two nuclei: in the supraoptic and in the paraventricular nuclei, whereas both peptidergic innervations are restricted to some ventral areas,(More)