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In the present work, we purified and characterized a novel toxin named hemicalcin from the venom of the Iranian chactoid scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus where it represents 0.6% of the total protein content. It is a 33-mer basic peptide reticulated by three disulfide bridges, and that shares between 85 and 91% sequence identity with four other toxins, all(More)
CoTX1 (cobatoxin 1) is a 32-residue toxin with three disulphide bridges that has been isolated from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann. Here we report the chemical synthesis, disulphide bridge organization, 3-D (three-dimensional) solution structure determination, pharmacology on K+ channel subtypes (voltage-gated and(More)
Hemitoxin (HTX) is a new K+ channel blocker isolated from the venom of the Iranian scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus. It represents only 0.1% of the venom proteins, and displaces [125 I]alpha-dendrotoxin from its site on rat brain synaptosomes with an IC50 value of 16 nm. The amino acid sequence of HTX shows that it is a 35-mer basic peptide with eight(More)
We have purified and characterized two peptides, named KAaH1 and KAaH2 (AaH polypeptides 1 and 2 active on K+ channels, where AaH stands for Androctonus australis Hector), from the venom of A. australis Hector scorpions. Their sequences contain 58 amino acids including six half-cysteines and differ only at positions 26 (Phe/Ser) and 29 (Lys/Gln). Although(More)
Integrins are essential protagonists of the complex multi-step process of angiogenesis that has now become a major target for the development of anticancer therapies. We recently reported and characterized that MVL-PLA2, a novel phospholipase A2 from Macrovipera lebetina venom, exhibited anti-integrin activity. In this study, we show that MVL-PLA2 also(More)
BotXIV and LqhalphaIT are two structurally related long chain scorpion alpha-toxins that inhibit sodium current inactivation in excitable cells. However, while LqhalphaIT from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus is classified as a true and strong insect alpha-toxin, BotXIV from Buthus occitanus tunetanus is characterized by moderate biological activities. To(More)
On attempts to identify toxins showing original profile of activity among K+ channels, we purified Kbot1, a scorpion toxin that blocks Kv1 and SK potassium channels. With 28 amino-acid residues, Kbot1 is the shortest toxin sequenced in Buthus occitanus scorpion. It is linked by three disulfide bridges and its primary structure is 93% identical to that of(More)
Alpha scorpion toxins bind to receptor site 3 on voltage-dependent sodium channels and inhibit their inactivation. The alpha-scorpion toxin BotIII is the most toxic protein of Buthus occitanus tunetanus. Its sequence differs only by three amino acid residues from that of AahII, the most active alpha-toxin. Due to their high affinity and selectivity for(More)
Scorpion toxins interact with their target ion channels through multiple molecular contacts. Because a "gain of function" approach has never been described to evaluate the importance of the molecular contacts in defining toxin affinity, we experimentally examined whether increasing the molecular contacts between a toxin and an ion channel directly impacts(More)
AahG50, the toxic fraction of Androctonus australis hector venom, was studied on human Kv3.1 channels activation, stably expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. AahG50 reduced Kv3.1 currents in a reversible concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value and a Hill coefficient of 40.4 ± 0.2 μg/ml and 1.3 ± 0.05,(More)