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Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that regulate macrophage cholesterol efflux by inducing ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1/ABCG4 gene expression. The Niemann-Pick C (NPC) proteins NPC1 and NPC2 are located in the late endosome, where they control cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane. The mobilization of(More)
Th1 cytokines promote monocyte differentiation into proatherogenic M1 macrophages, while Th2 cytokines lead to an "alternative" anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Here we show that in human atherosclerotic lesions, the expression of M2 markers and PPARgamma, a nuclear receptor controlling macrophage inflammation, correlate positively. Moreover,(More)
RATIONALE A crucial step in atherogenesis is the infiltration of the subendothelial space of large arteries by monocytes where they differentiate into macrophages and transform into lipid-loaded foam cells. Macrophages are heterogeneous cells that adapt their response to environmental cytokines. Th1 cytokines promote monocyte differentiation into M1(More)
Obesity is a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease associated with an increased number of macrophages (adipose tissue macrophages) in adipose tissue. Within the adipose tissue, adipose tissue macrophages are the major source of visfatin/pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor/nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase. The nuclear receptor peroxisome(More)
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11β-HSD1) converts inert cortisone into active cortisol, amplifying intracellular glucocorticoid action. 11β-HSD1 deficiency improves cardiovascular risk factors in obesity but exacerbates acute inflammation. To determine the effects of 11β-HSD1 deficiency on atherosclerosis and its inflammation,(More)
Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an "alternative" anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the(More)
OBJECTIVE 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the intracellular reduction of inactive cortisone to active cortisol, the natural ligand activating the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor controlling inflammation, lipid metabolism, and the macrophage polarization(More)
Transcription factors are recognized as the master regulators of gene expression. Interestingly, about 10% of the transcription factors described in mammals are up to date directly implicated in a very large number of human diseases. With the exception of ligand-inducible nuclear receptors, transcription factors have longtime been considered as(More)
Abnormal lipid deposition in human arteries leads to the formation of fatty streaks due to the accumulation of a large number of macrophage derived-foam cells. The formation and catabolism of intracellular lipid droplets is regulated by droplet-associated proteins. Among such proteins, the role of perilipin in human macrophages was unknown. In this study,(More)
Altered macrophage functions contribute to the pathogenesis of many infectious, immunological and inflammatory disease processes. Pharmacological modulation of macrophage activities therefore represents an important strategy for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis. This review focuses on recent advances on(More)