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HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+) T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical(More)
The antiviral potency of the cytokine IFN-α has been long appreciated but remains poorly understood. A number of studies have suggested that induction of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin/CD317) retroviral restriction factors underlies the IFN-α-mediated(More)
The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which(More)
Several host-encoded antiviral factors suppress HIV-1 replication in a cell-autonomous fashion in vitro. The relevance of these defenses to the control of HIV-1 in vivo remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that cellular restriction of HIV-1 replication plays a significant role in the observed suppression of HIV-1 in "elite controllers", individuals who(More)
BACKGROUND Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with daily oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may select for drug resistance if there is low adherence. METHODS Plasma viral HIV-1 RNA level, CD4+ T-cell counts, and drug resistance were evaluated among seroconverting women in the FEM-PrEP trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00625404) using standard(More)
BACKGROUND The iPrEx study demonstrated that combination oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protects against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women. Selection for drug resistance could offset PrEP benefits. METHODS Phenotypic and genotypic clinical resistance assays(More)
BACKGROUND Population-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels (viral load [VL]) are proposed metrics for antiretroviral therapy (ART) program effectiveness. We estimated population-based HIV RNA levels using a fingerprick-based approach in a rural Ugandan community implementing rapid ART scale-up. METHODS A fingerprick-based HIV RNA(More)
The genetic background of HIV-1-infected subjects, particularly the HLA class I haplotype, appears to be critical in determining disease progression rates, thought to be a result of the role of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. The HLA-B*57 allele is strongly associated with viremic suppression and slower disease progression. However, there is(More)
Expression of cell-intrinsic antiviral factors suppresses HIV-1 replication. We hypothesized that cellular activation modulates host restriction and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. We measured the gene expression of 34 antiviral factors in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Cellular activation induced expression of interferon-stimulated(More)
Alpha interferon (IFN-α) suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro by inducing cell-intrinsic retroviral restriction mechanisms. We investigated the effects of IFN-α/ribavirin (IFN-α/riba) treatment on 34 anti-HIV-1 restriction factors in vivo. Expression of several anti-HIV-1 restriction factors was significantly induced(More)