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BACKGROUND Many pharmacologically important peptides are synthesized nonribosomally by multimodular peptide synthetases (NRPSs). These enzyme templates consist of iterated modules that, in their number and organization, determine the primary structure of the corresponding peptide products. At the core of each module is an adenylation domain that recognizes(More)
High-affinity iron acquisition is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways in the majority of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and fungi. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding mechanisms of siderophore synthesis, secretion, iron scavenging, and siderophore-delivered iron uptake and its release. The regulation of(More)
Bacteria respond to a decrease in temperature with the induction of proteins that are classified as cold-induced proteins (CIPs). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed the cold shock response in Bacillus subtilis. After a shift from 37 to 15 degrees C the synthesis of a majority of proteins was repressed; in contrast, 37 proteins were(More)
Copper is an essential cofactor for many enzymes, and at over a threshold level, it is toxic for all organisms. To understand the mechanisms underlying copper homeostasis of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, we have performed microarray studies under copper-limiting conditions. These studies revealed that the ycnJ gene encodes a protein that(More)
This review presents recommended nomenclature for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), a rapidly growing class of natural products. The current knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of the >20 distinct compound classes is also reviewed, and commonalities are discussed.
The cold-shock response in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is induced by an abrupt downshift in growth temperature. It leads to the increased production of the major cold-shock proteins, CS7.4 and CspB, respectively. CS7.4 is a transcriptional activator of two genes. CS7.4 and CspB share 43 per cent sequence identity with the nucleic(More)
Following a rapid decrease in temperature, the physiology of Bacillus subtilis cells changes profoundly. Cold shock adaptation has been monitored at the level of membrane composition, adjustment in DNA topology, and change in cytosolic protein synthesis/composition. Some major players in these processes (cold-stress induced proteins and cold acclimatization(More)
Non-ribosomally synthesized peptides have compelling biological activities ranging from antimicrobial to immunosuppressive and from cytostatic to antitumor. The broad spectrum of applications in modern medicine is reflected in the great structural diversity of these natural products. They contain unique building blocks, such as d-amino acids, fatty acids,(More)
Peptide synthetases involved in the nonribosomal synthesis of peptide secondary metabolites possess a highly conserved domain structure. The arrangement of these domains within the multifunctional enzymes determines the number and order of the amino acid constituents of the peptide product. A general approach has been developed for targeted substitution of(More)
In the biosynthesis of many macrocyclic natural products by multidomain megasynthases, a carboxy-terminal thioesterase (TE) domain is involved in cyclization and product release; however, it has not been determined whether TE domains can catalyse macrocyclization (and elongation in the case of symmetric cyclic peptides) independently of upstream domains.(More)