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BACKGROUND Many pharmacologically important peptides are synthesized nonribosomally by multimodular peptide synthetases (NRPSs). These enzyme templates consist of iterated modules that, in their number and organization, determine the primary structure of the corresponding peptide products. At the core of each module is an adenylation domain that recognizes(More)
The cold-shock response in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis is induced by an abrupt downshift in growth temperature. It leads to the increased production of the major cold-shock proteins, CS7.4 and CspB, respectively. CS7.4 is a transcriptional activator of two genes. CS7.4 and CspB share 43 per cent sequence identity with the nucleic(More)
Peptide synthetases involved in the nonribosomal synthesis of peptide secondary metabolites possess a highly conserved domain structure. The arrangement of these domains within the multifunctional enzymes determines the number and order of the amino acid constituents of the peptide product. A general approach has been developed for targeted substitution of(More)
This review presents recommended nomenclature for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), a rapidly growing class of natural products. The current knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of the >20 distinct compound classes is also reviewed, and commonalities are discussed.
In the biosynthesis of many macrocyclic natural products by multidomain megasynthases, a carboxy-terminal thioesterase (TE) domain is involved in cyclization and product release; however, it has not been determined whether TE domains can catalyse macrocyclization (and elongation in the case of symmetric cyclic peptides) independently of upstream domains.(More)
Protein dynamics plays an important role in protein function. Many functionally important motions occur on the microsecond and low millisecond time scale and can be characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments. We describe the different states of a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) that play a crucial role in its function as a peptide(More)
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are modular multidomain enzymes that act as an assembly line to catalyze the biosynthesis of complex natural products. The crystal structure of the 144-kilodalton Bacillus subtilis termination module SrfA-C was solved at 2.6 angstrom resolution. The adenylation and condensation domains of SrfA-C associate closely to(More)