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BACKGROUND Many pharmacologically important peptides are synthesized nonribosomally by multimodular peptide synthetases (NRPSs). These enzyme templates consist of iterated modules that, in their number and organization, determine the primary structure of the corresponding peptide products. At the core of each module is an adenylation domain that recognizes(More)
High-affinity iron acquisition is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways in the majority of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and fungi. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding mechanisms of siderophore synthesis, secretion, iron scavenging, and siderophore-delivered iron uptake and its release. The regulation of(More)
BACKGROUND All polyketide synthases, fatty acid synthases, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases require posttranslational modification of their constituent acyl carrier protein domain(s) to become catalytically active. The inactive apoproteins are converted to their active holo-forms by posttranslational transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl (P-pant)(More)
Members of a family of cold-shock proteins (CSPs) are found throughout the eubacterial domain and appear to function as RNA-chaperones. They have been implicated in various cellular processes, including adaptation to low temperatures, cellular growth, nutrient stress and stationary phase. The discovery of a domain--the cold-shock domain--that shows(More)
Bacteria and fungi use large multifunctional enzymes, the so-called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), to produce peptides of broad structural and biological activity. Biochemical studies have contributed substantially to the understanding of the key principles of these modular enzymes that can draw on a much larger number of catalytic tools for the(More)
The non-ribosomal synthesis of the cyclic peptide antibiotic gramicidin S is accomplished by two large multifunctional enzymes, the peptide synthetases 1 and 2. The enzyme complex contains five conserved subunits of approximately 60 kDa which carry out ATP-dependent activation of specific amino acids and share extensive regions of sequence similarity with(More)
The Bacillus subtilis Sfp protein activates the peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains of surfactin synthetase by transferring the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl moiety of coenzyme A (CoA) to a serine residue conserved in all PCPs. Its wide PCP substrate spectrum renders Sfp a biotechnologically valuable enzyme for use in combinatorial non-ribosomal peptide(More)
Bacteria respond to a decrease in temperature with the induction of proteins that are classified as cold-induced proteins (CIPs). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed the cold shock response in Bacillus subtilis. After a shift from 37 to 15 degrees C the synthesis of a majority of proteins was repressed; in contrast, 37 proteins were(More)
A new class of cold shock-induced proteins that may be involved in an adaptive process required for cell viability at low temperatures or may function as antifreeze proteins in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified. We purified a small Bacillus subtilis cold shock protein (CspB) and determined its amino-terminal sequence. By(More)
BACKGROUND The branched cyclic dodecylpeptide antibiotic bacitracin, produced by special strains of Bacillus, is synthesized nonribosomally by a large multienzyme complex composed of the three bacitracin synthetases BA1, BA2 and BA3. These enzymes activate and incorporate the constituent amino acids of bacitracin by a thiotemplate mechanism in a pathway(More)