Mohamed A. Marahiel

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BACKGROUND Many pharmacologically important peptides are synthesized nonribosomally by multimodular peptide synthetases (NRPSs). These enzyme templates consist of iterated modules that, in their number and organization, determine the primary structure of the corresponding peptide products. At the core of each module is an adenylation domain that recognizes(More)
BACKGROUND All polyketide synthases, fatty acid synthases, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases require posttranslational modification of their constituent acyl carrier protein domain(s) to become catalytically active. The inactive apoproteins are converted to their active holo-forms by posttranslational transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl (P-pant)(More)
The non-ribosomal synthesis of the cyclic peptide antibiotic gramicidin S is accomplished by two large multifunctional enzymes, the peptide synthetases 1 and 2. The enzyme complex contains five conserved subunits of approximately 60 kDa which carry out ATP-dependent activation of specific amino acids and share extensive regions of sequence similarity with(More)
High-affinity iron acquisition is mediated by siderophore-dependent pathways in the majority of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and fungi. Considerable progress has been made in characterizing and understanding mechanisms of siderophore synthesis, secretion, iron scavenging, and siderophore-delivered iron uptake and its release. The regulation of(More)
Members of a family of cold-shock proteins (CSPs) are found throughout the eubacterial domain and appear to function as RNA-chaperones. They have been implicated in various cellular processes, including adaptation to low temperatures, cellular growth, nutrient stress and stationary phase. The discovery of a domain--the cold-shock domain--that shows(More)
Bacteria respond to a decrease in temperature with the induction of proteins that are classified as cold-induced proteins (CIPs). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed the cold shock response in Bacillus subtilis. After a shift from 37 to 15 degrees C the synthesis of a majority of proteins was repressed; in contrast, 37 proteins were(More)
Bacteria and fungi use large multifunctional enzymes, the so-called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), to produce peptides of broad structural and biological activity. Biochemical studies have contributed substantially to the understanding of the key principles of these modular enzymes that can draw on a much larger number of catalytic tools for the(More)
Surfactin is a lipopeptide antibiotic produced by the cells of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 21332. A genetic locus responsible for surfactin production (sfp) was transferred from ATCC 21332 to JH642, a derivative of the standard B. subtilis 168. To study the sfp locus at the molecular level, a Tn917 insertion mutant that was blocked in surfactin production (srf)(More)
Cyclosporine A therapy for prophylaxis against graft rejection revolutionized human organ transplantation. The immunosuppressant drugs cyclosporin A (CsA), FK506 and rapamycin block T-cell activation by interfering with the signal transduction pathway. The target proteins for CsA and FK506 were found to be cyclophilins and FK506-binding proteins, (FKBPs),(More)
A new class of cold shock-induced proteins that may be involved in an adaptive process required for cell viability at low temperatures or may function as antifreeze proteins in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified. We purified a small Bacillus subtilis cold shock protein (CspB) and determined its amino-terminal sequence. By(More)