Mohamed A. Abdelshafy

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MANET routing protocols have many vulnerabilities that may be exploited by malicious nodes to disrupt the normal routing behavior. In this paper, we present a vulnerability analysis of AODV. We simulate four routing attacks to analyse their impacts on AODV protocol using NS-2 network simulator. These attacks are blackhole, grayhole, selfish and flooding(More)
BACKGROUND Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is the standard technique for common bile duct (CBD) stone removal. Recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for the removal of large CBD stone. The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic outcomes and safety of EPLBD compared with(More)
MANET routing protocols are designed based on the assumption that all nodes cooperate without maliciously disrupting the operation of the routing protocol. A large number of attack types of varying severity are threatening MANET. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a well-known reactive MANET routing protocol that does not support security of routing messages.(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Egypt is quite high, and the combined oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) may have impressive results. OBJECTIVE To assess the cardiovascular effects of DAAs in patients with HCV. METHODS A total of 170 patients with HCV were divided into 2 groups: first group (100 patients) received triple(More)
MANET routing protocols are designed based on the assumption that all nodes cooperate without maliciously disrupting the operation of the routing protocol. AODV is a reactive MANET routing protocol that is vulnerable to a dramatic collapse of network performance in the presence of blackhole attack. The paper introduces a new concept of Self-Protocol(More)
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