Learn More
INTRODUCTION There is overwhelming medical and scientific consensus that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and other serious diseases in smokers. In the Total Exposure Study, 29 biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH) were measured in a cross-sectional sample of 3,585 adult smokers (AS) and 1,077 nonsmokers (NS). The BOPH included(More)
INTRODUCTION There are about 4,800 different chemical constituents in cigarette smoke. Therefore, the total systemic exposure evaluation of the population of smokers to cigarette smoke is challenging. Measurement of biomarkers as surrogates of cigarette smoke constituents is a realistic approach to assess exposure. OBJECTIVE To estimate cigarette smoke(More)
INTRODUCTION It has been reported that adult smokers (AS) may be considering smokeless tobacco products as an alternative to smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the change in exposure in AS using Marlboro snus (MSNUS) (a tobacco pouch product in test market in June 2007). METHODS AS were randomized into the following groups--CS: subjects(More)
Nasal delivery is a potential alternative for systemic availability of drugs restricted to intravenous administration, such as peptide and protein drugs. Although nasal delivery avoids the hepatic first-pass effect, the enzymatic barrier of the nasal mucosa creates a pseudo-first-pass effect. The xenobiotic metabolic activity in the nasal epithelium has(More)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in cigarette smoke induce cytochromes P4501A1 and P4501A2. These isozymes are of toxicological importance because they convert several environmental pollutants to reactive intermediates that form covalent adducts with cellular DNA resulting in mutations and/or malignant transformations. The aim of our research was to(More)
Some quinolone antibiotics cause increases in levels of theophylline in plasma that lead to serious adverse effects. We investigated the mechanism of this interaction by developing an in vitro system of human liver microsomes. Theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) was incubated with human liver microsomes in the presence of enoxacin, ciprofloxacin,(More)
AIMS To develop a population-based model to describe and predict the pharmacokinetics of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in adult smokers. METHODS Data from smokers of different conventional cigarettes (CC) in three open-label, randomized studies were analysed using NONMEM (version V, Level 1.1). COHb concentrations were determined at baseline for two(More)
Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol that includes a gas vapor phase and a particulate phase. Inclusion of activated carbon in the cigarette filter can reduce some of the gas-phase smoke constituents implicated as toxicologically relevant. The present study evaluated exposure to selected gas-phase constituents when adult smokers switched to prototype(More)
  • Jianmin Liu, Qiwei Liang, +5 authors Mohamadi Sarkar
  • 2011
BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer, but the role of specific smoke constituents in these diseases has not been clearly established. METHODS The relationships between biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH), associated with inflammation(More)
Alkylating agents occur in the environment and are formed endogenously. Tobacco smoke contains a variety of alkylating agents or precursors including, among others, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide. We developed and validated a method for the simultaneous determination of(More)