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Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease results in >19 million deaths annually, and coronary heart disease accounts for the majority of this toll. Despite major advances in treatment of coronary heart disease patients, a large number of victims of the disease who are apparently healthy die suddenly without prior symptoms. Available screening and diagnostic(More)
Our group has previously demonstrated that oxidized phospholipids in mildly oxidized LDL (MM-LDL) produced by oxidation with lipoxygenase, iron, or cocultures of artery wall cells increase monocyte-endothelial interactions and this sequence of events is blocked by HDL. To obtain further insight into the mechanism by which HDL abolishes the activity of(More)
The oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and cell membrane lipids is believed to play an integral role in the development of fatty streak lesions, an initial step in atherogenesis. We have previously shown that two antioxidant-like enzymes, paraoxonase (PON)-1 and PON3, are high density lipoprotein-associated proteins capable of preventing(More)
Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is an esterase that is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in the plasma; it is involved in the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides such as parathion and chlorpyrifos. PON1 may also confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids present in oxidized low-density(More)
Entry of monocytes into the vessel wall is an important event in atherogenesis. Previous studies from our laboratory suggest that oxidized arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids present in mildly oxidized low density lipoproteins (MM-LDL) can activate endothelial cells to bind monocytes. In this study, biologically active oxidized arachidonic(More)
BACKGROUND The inflammatory/antiinflammatory properties of HDL were compared with HDL cholesterol in 2 groups of patients and in age- and sex-matched control subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS Group 1 consisted of 26 patients not yet taking a statin who presented with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD equivalents by National Cholesterol Education Program(More)
The clinical events resulting from atherosclerosis are directly related to the oxidation of lipids in LDLs that become trapped in the extracellular matrix of the subendothelial space. These oxidized lipids activate an NF kappa B-like transcription factor and induce the expression of genes containing NF kappa B binding sites. The protein products of these(More)
Recent data support the hypothesis that the fatty streak develops in response to specific phospholipids contained in LDL that become trapped in the artery wall and become oxidized as a result of exposure to the oxidative waste of the artery wall cells. The antioxidants present within both LDL and the microenvironments in which LDL is trapped function to(More)
For more than two decades, there has been continuing evidence of lipid oxidation playing a central role in atherogenesis. The oxidation hypothesis of atherogenesis has evolved to focus on specific proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids that result from the oxidation of LDL phospholipids containing arachidonic acid and that are recognized by the innate(More)
Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) phospholipids containing arachidonic acid at the sn-2 position occurs when a critical concentration of "seeding molecules" derived from the lipoxygenase pathway is reached in LDL. When this critical concentration is reached, the nonenzymatic oxidation of LDL phospholipids produces a series of biologically active,(More)