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Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is an esterase that is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in the plasma; it is involved in the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides such as parathion and chlorpyrifos. PON1 may also confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids present in oxidized low-density(More)
BACKGROUND The inflammatory/antiinflammatory properties of HDL were compared with HDL cholesterol in 2 groups of patients and in age- and sex-matched control subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS Group 1 consisted of 26 patients not yet taking a statin who presented with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD equivalents by National Cholesterol Education Program(More)
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease results in >19 million deaths annually, and coronary heart disease accounts for the majority of this toll. Despite major advances in treatment of coronary heart disease patients, a large number of victims of the disease who are apparently healthy die suddenly without prior symptoms. Available screening and diagnostic(More)
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a secreted protein associated primarily with high density lipoprotein (HDL) and participates in the prevention of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Two other paraoxonase (PON) family members, namely, PON2 and PON3, have been identified. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the human PON3 gene from HepG2(More)
Shear stress regulates endothelial nitric oxide and superoxide (O2-*) production, implicating the role of NADPH oxidase activity. It is unknown whether shear stress regulates the sources of reactive species production, consequent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modification, and initiation of inflammatory events. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) in the(More)
Intracellular pathogens survive by evading the host immune system and accessing host metabolic pathways to obtain nutrients for their growth. Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, is thought to be the mycobacterium most dependent on host metabolic pathways, including host-derived lipids. Although fatty acids and phospholipids accumulate in(More)
To elucidate roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cardiovascular system, we have analyzed one-year-old HO-1-knockout mice. Homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had severe aortitis and coronary arteritis with mononuclear cellular infiltration and fatty streak formation even on a standard chow diet. Levels of plasma total cholesterol and HDL were similar among the(More)
Treatment of human artery wall cells with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), but not apoA-II, with an apoA-I peptide mimetic, or with high density lipoprotein (HDL), or paraoxonase, rendered the cells unable to oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL). Human aortic wall cells were found to contain 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) protein. Transfection of the cells with(More)
There are several well-documented functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that may explain the ability of these lipoproteins to protect against atherosclerosis. The best recognized of these is the ability of HDL to promote the efflux of cholesterol from cells. This process may minimize the accumulation of foam cells in the artery wall. However, HDL has(More)