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Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is an esterase that is associated with high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) in the plasma; it is involved in the detoxification of organophosphate insecticides such as parathion and chlorpyrifos. PON1 may also confer protection against coronary artery disease by destroying pro-inflammatory oxidized lipids present in oxidized low-density(More)
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease results in >19 million deaths annually, and coronary heart disease accounts for the majority of this toll. Despite major advances in treatment of coronary heart disease patients, a large number of victims of the disease who are apparently healthy die suddenly without prior symptoms. Available screening and diagnostic(More)
BACKGROUND The inflammatory/antiinflammatory properties of HDL were compared with HDL cholesterol in 2 groups of patients and in age- and sex-matched control subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS Group 1 consisted of 26 patients not yet taking a statin who presented with coronary heart disease (CHD) or CHD equivalents by National Cholesterol Education Program(More)
Intracellular pathogens survive by evading the host immune system and accessing host metabolic pathways to obtain nutrients for their growth. Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, is thought to be the mycobacterium most dependent on host metabolic pathways, including host-derived lipids. Although fatty acids and phospholipids accumulate in(More)
Oxidized lipoproteins have been identified in atherosclerotic plaques and in early lesions in humans as well as in animals. There is accumulating evidence that such oxidized lipoproteins have an important role in atherosclerosis. Treatment of endothelial cells with altered lipoproteins stimulates monocyte binding as well as the production of chemotactic(More)
The mechanisms by which 17beta-estradiol retards atherogenesis are not known. The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells followed by the migration of monocytes into the artery wall are key cellular events that occur throughout the entire atherogenic process and may be responsive to estradiol. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine that(More)
To elucidate roles of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cardiovascular system, we have analyzed one-year-old HO-1-knockout mice. Homozygous HO-1-knockout mice had severe aortitis and coronary arteritis with mononuclear cellular infiltration and fatty streak formation even on a standard chow diet. Levels of plasma total cholesterol and HDL were similar among the(More)
Treatment of human artery wall cells with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), but not apoA-II, with an apoA-I peptide mimetic, or with high density lipoprotein (HDL), or paraoxonase, rendered the cells unable to oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL). Human aortic wall cells were found to contain 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) protein. Transfection of the cells with(More)
There are several well-documented functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that may explain the ability of these lipoproteins to protect against atherosclerosis. The best recognized of these is the ability of HDL to promote the efflux of cholesterol from cells. This process may minimize the accumulation of foam cells in the artery wall. However, HDL has(More)