Modjtaba Zandian

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Outcome in anorexia nervosa remains poor and a new way of looking at this condition is therefore needed. To this aim, we review the effects of food restriction and starvation in humans. It is suggested that body weight remains stable and relatively low when the access to food requires a considerable amount of physical activity. In this condition, the human(More)
The hypothesis that eating disorders are caused by an antecedent mental disorder, presently believed to be an obsessive compulsive disorder, has been clinically implemented during many years but has not improved treatment outcome. Alternatively, eating disorders are eating disorders and the symptoms of anorexic patients and probably bulimic patients as(More)
Women were divided into those eating at a decelerated or linear rate. Eating rate was then experimentally increased or decreased by asking the women to adapt their rate of eating to curves presented on a computer screen and the effect on food intake and satiety was studied. Decelerated eaters were unable to eat at an increased rate, but ate the same amount(More)
We determined whether women and men would alter their pattern of food intake after they had deprived themselves of food. We found that women consumed 12% less food after fasting and that men ate 28% more food after fasting. Serving more food on the test day did not increase food intake of women. Women, who ate at a nearly constant rate (linear eaters),(More)
It is suggested that the symptoms of anorexia nervosa are physiological responses to starvation. There is no evidence of a neural or non-neural dysfunction that predisposes women for anorexia nervosa and the endocrine and psychological consequences of starvation are reversed once patients have re-learnt how to eat and regained a normal body weight. Because(More)
The world-wide increase in obesity has markedly stimulated research on the possibility that its cause can be found the brain. However, this research has produced little that can be used to treat obesity. The reason for the limited success of this approach may be that it relies on the hypothesis that the brain controls behavior. We suggest that this(More)
Brainstem and hypothalamic "orexigenic/anorexigenic" networks are thought to maintain body weight homeostasis in response to hormonal and metabolic feedback from peripheral sites. This approach has not been successful in managing over- and underweight patients. It is suggested that concept of homeostasis has been misinterpreted; rather than exerting(More)
A wealth of data supports the idea that the stomach and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) normally play important roles in meal size and satiety. We studied long-term gastrectomized humans to further evaluate this possibility. Ten humans, who were gastrectomized 8 (3-12) years earlier, and eight controls ate a meal from a plate placed on a scale connected(More)
It has been suggested that restrained eating is a cognitive strategy that an individual uses for control of food intake. If losing control, the restrained eater enters a state of disinhibition and is therefore thought to be at risk for developing eating disorders and obesity. Restrained eaters eat at a constant rate and can therefore also be referred to as(More)
A method for the control of eating rate gave subjects feedback from a computer screen on how much and at what rate to eat during a meal. The method also allowed us to record the development of satiety during the meal. Linear eaters--that is, women selected for eating at an approximately constant rate--underate when challenged to eat at a lower rate and(More)