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The NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) subclass of glutamate receptor is essential for the synaptic plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory and for synaptic refinement during development. It is currently believed that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is a heteromultimeric channel comprising the ubiquitous NR1 subunit and at least one regionally localized NR2(More)
Excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors play an important role in neuronal cell death in acute cerebral ischemia. Blocking the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) subtype of EAA receptor has been shown to reduce cell death in global cerebral ischemia. However their role in focal stroke, although suggestive, has remained more(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disorder resulting in the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which ultimately leads to impairment of the endocrine and exocrine functions. Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) was recently approved by FDA for treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. DMF's unique anti-oxidant and(More)
Orexins are bioactive peptides, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in vigilance state transitions: the loss of orexin-producing neurons (orexin neurons) leads to narcolepsy with cataplexy in the human. However, the effect of the need for sleep (i.e., sleep pressure) on orexin neurons remains largely unknown. Here, we found that immunostaining(More)
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