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APEX2/APE2 is a secondary mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease that associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and the progression of S phase of the cell cycle is accompanied by its expression. To determine the biologic significance of APEX2, we established APEX2-null mice. These mice were about 80% the size of their wild-type(More)
Oxidative base lesions, such as 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), accumulate in nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs under oxidative stress, resulting in cell death. However, it is not known which form of DNA is involved, whether nuclear or mitochondrial, nor is it known how the death order is executed. We established cells which selectively accumulate 8-oxoG in either type(More)
Mammalian inosine triphosphatase encoded by ITPA gene hydrolyzes ITP and dITP to monophosphates, avoiding their deleterious effects. Itpa(-) mice exhibited perinatal lethality, and significantly higher levels of inosine in cellular RNA and deoxyinosine in nuclear DNA were detected in Itpa(-) embryos than in wild-type embryos. Therefore, we examined the(More)
It has been shown that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) acts as a therapeutic antioxidant and suppresses brain injury by buffering the effects of oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that drinking H(2)-containing water significantly reduced the loss of dopaminergic neurons in(More)
The germline mutation rate is an important parameter that affects the amount of genetic variation and the rate of evolution. However, neither the rate of germline mutations in laboratory mice nor the biological significance of the mutation rate in mammalian populations is clear. Here we studied genome-wide mutation rates and the long-term effects of(More)
We have previously established an experimental system for oxidative DNA damage-induced tumorigenesis in the small intestine of mice. To elucidate the roles of mismatch repair genes in the tumor suppression, we performed oxidative DNA damage-induced tumorigenesis experiments using Msh2-deficient mice. Oral administration of 0.2% Potassium Bromate, KBrO3,(More)
The polypurine/polypyrimidine (PuPy) tracts present in the human genome are known to be scattered among and within chromosomes. In PuPy tract sequences, triplex formation occurs readily under physiological conditions, leaving single-stranded DNAs capable of hybridization with complementary single-stranded DNAs and RNAs. The formation of single-strands and(More)
In mammalian cells, more than one genome in a single cell has to be maintained throughout the entire life of the cell, namely, one in the nucleus and the other in the mitochondria. The genomes and their precursor nucleotides are highly exposed to reactive oxygen species, which are inevitably generated as a result of the respiratory function in mitochondria.(More)
Elongin A is a transcription elongation factor that increases the overall rate of mRNA chain elongation by RNA polymerase II. To investigate the function of Elongin A in vivo, the two alleles of the Elongin A gene have been disrupted by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. The Elongin A-deficient ES cells are viable, but show a slow(More)
8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a major spontaneous form of oxidative DNA damage, is considered to be a natural cause of genomic diversity in organisms because of its mutagenic potential. The steady-state level of 8-oxoG in the nuclear genome of a human cell has been estimated to be several residues per 10(6) guanines. In the present study, to clarify the(More)