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We previously proposed that the production of hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) is a key event in the development of diabetes complications. The association between the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications and mitochondrial biogenesis has been recently reported. Because metformin has been reported to exert a(More)
Macrophage-derived foam cells play important roles in the progression of atherosclerosis. We reported previously that ERK1/2-dependent granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression, leading to p38 MAPK/ Akt signaling, is important for oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced macrophage proliferation. Here, we investigated(More)
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a critical event in the development and progression of vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) could suppress VSMC proliferation and inhibit cell cycle progression. Treatment of human aortic smooth(More)
We previously reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced expression of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) via PKC, leading to activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K), was important for macrophage proliferation [J Biol Chem 275 (2000) 5810]. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibits insulin action; however, the precise mechanisms are unknown. It was reported that TNF-alpha could increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) was reported to be required for TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Here, we examined roles of mitochondrial ROS(More)
Both statins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma ligands have been reported to protect against the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of statins on PPARgamma activation in macrophages. Statins increased PPARgamma activity, which was inhibited by mevalonate, farnesylpyrophosphate, or(More)
It has been reported that oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) can activate both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and PPARgamma. However, the detailed mechanisms of Ox-LDL-induced PPARalpha and PPARgamma activation are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ox-LDL on PPARalpha and PPARgamma(More)
Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (statins) ameliorate atherosclerotic diseases. Macrophages play an important role in the development and subsequent stability of atherosclerotic plaques. We reported previously that oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induced macrophage proliferation through the secretion of(More)
We have recently demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) increases the production of type 4 collagen by cultured human mesangial cells. Here we examined the clinical effects of a 5-HT(A2) receptor antagonist whether it would prevent the development or progression of diabetic nephropathy. We compared the levels of 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), the major(More)
OBJECTIVES Serum diamine oxidase (DAO) level is employed as a useful marker of intestinal mucosal integrity. As reported previously, the range of serum DAO levels in women is wider than that in men. We hypothesized that the menstrual cycle may affect DAO levels. DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-six women of Japanese descent were recruited. All participants, aged(More)