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Recent studies have shown that multiple brain areas contribute to different stages and aspects of procedural learning. On the basis of a series of studies using a sequence-learning task with trial-and-error, we propose a hypothetical scheme in which a sequential procedure is acquired independently by two cortical systems, one using spatial coordinates and(More)
1. To characterize procedural learning and memory, we devised a behavioral paradigm that allows us to examine the process of learning of new procedures, repeatedly and without serious difficulties for primate subjects. We trained two monkeys to perform a sequential button press task. Upon pressing of a home key, 2 of 16 (4 x 4 matrix) light-emitting diode(More)
 To study the role of the basal ganglia in learning of sequential movements, we trained two monkeys to perform a sequential button-press task (2×5 task). This task enabled us to examine the process of learning new sequences as well as the execution of well-learned sequences repeatedly. We injected muscimol (a GABA agonist) into different parts of the(More)
This study examined the hypothesis that the kinematics of movements performed by PD (Parkinson's disease) patients are differentially affected depending on whether or not the aiming movement has an accuracy constraint. The aiming movements required elbow extension in the horizontal plane on a digitizer. There were two movement conditions: (1) one having a(More)
 The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and structure of procedural memory. We have previously studied the process of learning sequential behavioral procedures using monkeys. The monkey’s task was to press five consecutive pairs of buttons (indicated by illumination) in the correct order for every pair, which he had to find by(More)
Remarkable human performance, such as playing the violin, is often based on motor skills that, once acquired, are retained for a long time. To examine how motor skills are retained, we trained monkeys and humans extensively to perform many visuomotor sequences and examined their performance after a long retention period of up to 18 months. For both monkeys(More)
Reach-to-grasp movements of patients with pathology restricted to the cerebellum were compared with those of normal controls. Two types of paradigms with different accuracy constraints were used to examine whether cerebellar impairment disrupts the stereotypic relationship between arm transport and grip aperture and whether the variability of this(More)
We previously demonstrated that velocity and movement time for the initial segment for a two-stroke movement are scaled in relation to the difficulty of the second segment. The interdependent kinematic changes were interpreted as evidence that movement planning/organization processes consider the movement parameters of both segments when determining the(More)
This study examined whether the pattern of coordination between arm-reaching toward an object (hand transport) and the initiation of aperture closure for grasping is different between PD patients and healthy individuals, and whether that pattern is affected by the necessity to quickly adjust the reach-to-grasp movement in response to an unexpected shift of(More)
 Arm movements in the horizontal plane consisting of two segments were examined to determine whether the difficulty of the second segment influenced the kinematic characteristics of the first segment. The direction of the first segment was an elbow extension movement away from the trunk and remained constant throughout the experiment. The direction of the(More)