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The thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus elongatus, has been grown in the presence of Sr2+ instead of Ca2+ with the aim of biosynthetically replacing the Ca2+ of the oxygen-evolving enzyme with Sr2+. Not only were the cells able to grow normally with Sr2+, they actively accumulated the ion to levels higher than those of Ca2+ in the normal(More)
Differently hydrated films of photosystem II (PSII) core complexes from Synechococcus elongatus were prepared in a humidity-controlled infrared cell. The relative humidity was changed by a simple method of placing a different ratio of glycerol/water solution in the sealed cell. The extent of hydration of the PSII film was lowered as the glycerol ratio(More)
The vibrations of a water molecule in the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) of photosystem II were detected for the first time using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In a flash-induced FTIR difference spectrum upon the S(1)-to-S(2) transition, a pair of positive and negative bands was observed at 3618 and 3585 cm(-1), respectively, and both bands(More)
Photosynthetic water oxidation is performed via the light-driven S-state cycle in the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) of photosystem II (PS II). To understand its molecular mechanism, monitoring the reaction of substrate water in each S-state transition is essential. We have for the first time detected the reactions of water molecules in WOC throughout the(More)
A Ca(2+) ion is an indispensable element in the oxygen-evolving Mn cluster in photosystem II (PSII). To investigate the structural relevance of Ca(2+) to the Mn cluster, the effects of Sr(2+) substitution for Ca(2+) on the structures and reactions of ligands to the Mn cluster during the S-state cycle were investigated using flash-induced Fourier transform(More)
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra of all flash-induced S-state transitions of the oxygen-evolving complex were measured using photosystem II (PSII) core complexes of Synechococcus elongatus. The PSII core sample was given eight successive flashes with 1 s intervals at 10 degrees C, and FTIR difference spectra upon individual flashes were(More)
Thin-layer cell spectroelectrochemistry, featuring rigorous potential control and rapid redox equilibration within the cell, was used to measure the redox potential E(m)(Phe a/Phe a(-)) of pheophytin (Phe) a, the primary electron acceptor in an oxygen-evolving photosystem (PS) II core complex from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus.(More)
The active site for water oxidation in Photosystem II (PSII) goes through five sequential oxidation states (S(0) to S(4)) before O(2) is evolved. It consists of a Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster and Tyr(Z), a redox-active tyrosine residue. Chloride ions have been known for long time to be required for the function of the enzyme. However, X-ray data have shown that they(More)
Photosynthetic oxygen evolution by plants and cyanobacteria is performed by water oxidation at the Mn(4)CaO(5) cluster in photosystem II. The reaction is known to proceed via a light-driven cycle of five intermediates called S(i) states (i = 0-4). However, the detailed reaction processes during the intermediate transitions remain unresolved. In this study,(More)
The catalytic cycle of numerous enzymes involves the coupling between proton transfer and electron transfer. Yet, the understanding of this coordinated transfer in biological systems remains limited, likely because its characterization relies on the controlled but experimentally challenging modifications of the free energy changes associated with either the(More)