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Two small RNAs regulate the timing of Caenorhabditis elegans development. Transition from the first to the second larval stage fates requires the 22-nucleotide lin-4 RNA, and transition from late larval to adult cell fates requires the 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA. The lin-4 and let-7 RNA genes are not homologous to each other, but are each complementary to(More)
The multisubunit MSL dosage compensation complex binds to hundreds of sites along the Drosophila single male X chromosome, mediating its hypertranscription. The male X chromosome is also coated with noncoding roX RNAs. When either msl3, mle, or mof is mutant, a partial MSL complex is bound at only approximately 35 unusual sites distributed along the X. We(More)
We have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of MLE, MLS-1, MSL-2, and histone H4Ac16 during embryogenesis to determine when msl-dependent dosage compensation begins. Maternal MSL-1 and MLE are present in both sexes at fertilization. MSL-2 lacks a maternal component, and male-specific zygotic expression is detectable at the end of blastoderm.(More)
Chromatin is composed of DNA and a variety of modified histones and non-histone proteins, which have an impact on cell differentiation, gene regulation and other key cellular processes. Here we present a genome-wide chromatin landscape for Drosophila melanogaster based on eighteen histone modifications, summarized by nine prevalent combinatorial patterns.(More)
The Drosophila roX1 gene is X-linked and produces RNAs that are male-specific, somatic, and preferentially expressed in the central nervous system. These RNAs are retained in the nucleus and lack any significant open reading frame. Although all sexually dimorphic characteristics in Drosophila were thought to be controlled by the sex determination pathway(More)
To gain insight into how genomic information is translated into cellular and developmental programs, the Drosophila model organism Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is comprehensively mapping transcripts, histone modifications, chromosomal proteins, transcription factors, replication proteins and intermediates, and nucleosome properties(More)
Male-specific lethal-2 (msl-2) is a RING finger protein that is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila males. Consistent with the formation of a dosage compensation protein complex, msl-2 colocalizes with the other MSL proteins on the male X chromosome and coimmunoprecipitates with msl-1 from male larval extracts. Ectopic expression of(More)
Eukaryotic genomes are packaged in two basic forms, euchromatin and heterochromatin. We have examined the composition and organization of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin in different cell types using ChIP-array analysis of histone modifications and chromosomal proteins. As anticipated, the pericentric heterochromatin and chromosome 4 are on average(More)
The maleless (mle) gene is one of four known regulatory loci required for increased transcription (dosage compensation) of X-linked genes in D. melanogaster males. A predicted mle protein (MLE) contains seven short segments that define a superfamily of known and putative RNA and DNA helicases. MLE, while present in the nuclei of both male and female cells,(More)
The untranslated roX1 and roX2 RNAs are components of the Drosophila male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which modifies histones to up-regulate transcription of the male X chromosome. roX genes are normally located on the X chromosome, and roX transgenes can misdirect the dosage compensation machinery to spread locally on other chromosomes. Here we define(More)