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Two small RNAs regulate the timing of Caenorhabditis elegans development. Transition from the first to the second larval stage fates requires the 22-nucleotide lin-4 RNA, and transition from late larval to adult cell fates requires the 21-nucleotide let-7 RNA. The lin-4 and let-7 RNA genes are not homologous to each other, but are each complementary to(More)
Chromatin is composed of DNA and a variety of modified histones and non-histone proteins, which have an impact on cell differentiation, gene regulation and other key cellular processes. Here we present a genome-wide chromatin landscape for Drosophila melanogaster based on eighteen histone modifications, summarized by nine prevalent combinatorial patterns.(More)
Male-specific lethal-2 (msl-2) is a RING finger protein that is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila males. Consistent with the formation of a dosage compensation protein complex, msl-2 colocalizes with the other MSL proteins on the male X chromosome and coimmunoprecipitates with msl-1 from male larval extracts. Ectopic expression of(More)
The multisubunit MSL dosage compensation complex binds to hundreds of sites along the Drosophila single male X chromosome, mediating its hypertranscription. The male X chromosome is also coated with noncoding roX RNAs. When either msl3, mle, or mof is mutant, a partial MSL complex is bound at only approximately 35 unusual sites distributed along the X. We(More)
BACKGROUND In the male Drosophila, the X chromosome is transcriptionally upregulated to achieve dosage compensation, in a process that depends on association of the MSL proteins with the X chromosome. A role for non-coding RNAs has been suggested in recent studies. The roX1 and roX2 RNAs are male-specific, non-coding RNAs that are produced by, and also(More)
The Drosophila roX1 gene is X-linked and produces RNAs that are male-specific, somatic, and preferentially expressed in the central nervous system. These RNAs are retained in the nucleus and lack any significant open reading frame. Although all sexually dimorphic characteristics in Drosophila were thought to be controlled by the sex determination pathway(More)
In Drosophila, dosage compensation is controlled by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of MSL proteins and roX RNAs. The MSL complex is specifically localized on the male X chromosome to increase its expression approximately 2-fold. We recently proposed a model for the targeted assembly of the MSL complex, in which initial binding occurs at(More)
MSL proteins and noncoding roX RNAs form complexes to up-regulate hundreds of genes on the Drosophila male X chromosome, and make X-linked gene expression equal in males and females. Altering the ratio of MSL proteins to roX RNA dramatically changes X-chromosome morphology. In protein excess, the MSL complex concentrates near sites of roX transcription and(More)
Dosage compensation in Drosophila occurs by a twofold increase in transcription per copy of X-linked genes in males (XY) compared with females (XX). msl-1 is one of four genes that are essential for dosage compensation in males, and MSL-1 protein is associated specifically with the male X chromosome. To explore the basis for the sex specificity of dosage(More)
Drosophila MSL proteins are thought to act within a complex to elevate transcription from the male X chromosome. We found that the MSL1, MSL2 and MSL3 proteins are associated in immunoprecipitations, chromatographic steps and in the yeast two-hybrid system, but that the MLE protein is not tightly complexed in these assays. We focused our analysis on the(More)