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In contrast to the ultrasonic measurement of fetal heart motion, the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) provides clinically significant information concerning the electrophysiological state of a fetus. In this paper, a novel method for extracting the fetal ECG from abdominal composite signals is proposed. This method consists of the cancellation of the mother's(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by hippocampal theta waves and phasic spike-like waves originating from the pons, termed ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves in cats and pontine (P) waves in rats. While the theta wave and PGO/P wave have been suggested to participate in higher-order brain functions, their generation mechanisms and roles in(More)
The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) neurons are regarded as contributing to the activation of the cerebral cortex. We have investigated the statistical characteristics of the single neuronal activity in the MRF of cat during two activated states: paradoxical sleep (PS) and state in which the animal is watching birds (BW). 1/f-like spectra are(More)
The present study examined the correlations between the dynamics of hippocampal theta waves and pontine waves (P waves) and rapid eye movements (REMs) densities during REM sleep. Theta wave peak frequency and theta amplitude were estimated as the parameters of theta wave dynamics in each 3s segment. The peak frequency and theta amplitude were positively(More)
The study demonstrated that ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves are phase-locked with hippocampal theta-waves during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. A possible mechanism for influencing a PGO wave generator by hippocampal theta-waves was hypothesized. The generator is known to receive afferent inputs such as auditory input. To test this hypothesis, the(More)
Physiological knowledge of the neural mechanisms regulating sleep and wakefulness has been advanced by the recent findings concerning sleep/wakefulness-related preoptic/anterior hypothalamic and perifornical (orexin-containing)/posterior hypothalamic neurons. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model of the mechanisms orchestrating a quartet neural(More)
Cloned cDNA encoding the so-far uncharacterized alpha-3 subunit of rat brain Na+,K+-ATPase (Hara et al. (1987) J. Biochem. 102, 43-58, Shull et al. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 8125-8132) was incorporated into a vector carrying the SP6 promoter. The mRNA produced in vitro was injected into Xenopus oocytes with the mRNA encoding the Na+,K+-ATPase beta subunit of(More)
We investigated the temporal relationship between hippocampal theta waves and ponto-geniculo-occipital waves (PGO) during rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) in cats. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between hippocampal theta waves and PGO as elicited by tone stimulus (PGO(E)) in order to quantitively characterize the PGO wave generator mechanism.(More)
Entrainment of the circadian rhythm has 2 aspects, period and phase adjustments, which are established simultaneously in most nonhuman circadian systems. The human circadian system is unique in its functional structure in which 2 different subsystems are involved; one is the circadian pacemaker analogous to that located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and(More)