Mitsuyasu Kato

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In vitro homotypic fusion of yeast vacuoles occurs in three stages: priming, the Sec18 (NSF)-mediated changes that precede vacuole association; docking, the Ypt7 and SNARE-mediated pairing of vacuoles; and fusion, mediated by calmodulin/V0/t-SNARE interactions. Defects in catalysts of each stage result in fragmented (unfused) vacuoles. Strains with(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine of key importance for controlling embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. How TGF-beta signals are attenuated and terminated is not well understood. Here, we show that TMEPAI, a direct target gene of TGF-beta signaling, antagonizes TGF-beta signaling by interfering with TGF-beta type I(More)
Vascular development depends on transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), but whether signalling of this protein is required for the development of endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) or both is unclear. To address this, we selectively deleted the type I (ALK5, TGFBR1) and type II (TbetaRII, TGFBR2) receptors in mice. Absence of(More)
c-Myc is one of the most potent regulators of cell cycle progression in higher eukaryotes. Down-regulation of c-Myc is a critical event for growth inhibition induced by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and is frequently impaired in cancer cells. We determined a Smad-responsive element in the c-myc promoter. This element is a complex of the(More)
Smad2 is a receptor-regulated Smad that is activated specifically by transforming growth factor beta and activin signaling. We disrupted the mouse Smad2 gene by gene targeting. Homozygous Smad2 mutant mice died around E8.5 with impaired visceral endoderm function and deficiency of mesoderm formation. Heterozygotes were fertile and had no apparent(More)
E2-2 belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. E2-2 associates with inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) 1, which is involved in angiogenesis. In this paper, we demonstrate that E2-2 interacts with Id1 and provide evidence that this interaction potentiates angiogenesis. Mutational analysis revealed that the HLH domain of E2-2 is(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein TAL1/SCL is essential for embryonic-vascular development. TAL1/SCL regulates the activation of endothelial cells by binding directly or indirectly to DNA sequences in critical target genes. We recently demonstrated that E-box protein E2-2 blocks endothelial cell activation via perturbation of VEGFR2 promoter(More)
TMEPAI/PMEPA1 is a transmembrane protein that was originally identified as a prostatic RNA, the synthesis of which is induced by testosterone or its derivatives. We have recently identified TMEPAI as a direct target gene of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling that participates in negative feedback control of the duration and intensity of(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in vascular formation through activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 and ALK5. ALK5, which is expressed ubiquitously, phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3, whereas endothelial cell (EC)-specific ALK1 activates Smad1 and Smad5. Because ALK5 kinase activity is required for ALK1 to transduce TGF-β signaling via Smad1/5(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell fate determination and homeostasis. Expression of these small RNA genes is tightly regulated during development and in normal tissues, but they are often misregulated in cancer. MiRNA expression is also affected by DNA damaging agents, such as radiation. In particular, mammalian miR-34 is upregulated by(More)