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The microenvironments of the thymus are generated by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and are essential for inducing immune self-tolerance or developing T cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the differentiation of TECs and thymic compartmentalization are not fully understood. Here we show that deficiency in the tumor necrosis factor(More)
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family has important roles in microbial recognition and dendritic cell activation. TLRs 7 and 9 can recognize nucleic acids and trigger signalling cascades that activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells to produce interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) (refs 7, 8). TLR7/9-mediated dendritic cell activation is critical for antiviral immunity(More)
The roles of autoimmune regulator (Aire) in the expression of the diverse arrays of tissue-restricted antigen (TRA) genes from thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (medullary thymic epithelial cells [mTECs]) and in organization of the thymic microenvironment are enigmatic. We approached this issue by creating a mouse strain in which the coding sequence of(More)
The roles of autoimmune regulator (Aire)-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) in the organization of the thymic microenvironment for establishing self-tolerance are enigmatic. We sought to monitor the production and maintenance of Aire-expressing mTECs by a fate-mapping strategy in which bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (Tg) mice(More)
Expression of the p16(Ink4a) tumor suppressor gene, a sensor of oncogenic stress, is up-regulated by a variety of potentially oncogenic stimuli in cultured primary cells. However, because p16(Ink4a) expression is also induced by tissue culture stress, physiological mechanisms regulating p16(Ink4a) expression remain unclear. To eliminate any potential(More)
LT ␣-deficient (LT ␣ ϪրϪ) mice show altered splenic microarchitecture. This includes loss of normal B cell–T cell compartmentalization, of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) clusters, and of ability to form germinal centers (GC). LT ␣ ϪրϪ mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced high levels of antigen-specific IgM but no IgG in either primary(More)
Both nuclear factor (NF)-␬ B–inducing kinase (NIK) and inhibitor of ␬ B (I ␬ B) kinase (IKK) have been implicated as essential components for NF-␬ B activation in response to many external stimuli. However, the exact roles of NIK and IKK ␣ in cytokine signaling still remain controversial. With the use of in vivo mouse models, rather than with enforced(More)
In mice deficient in either lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) or type I tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I), organized clusters of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and germinal centers (GC) are absent from the spleen. We investigated the role of LT-alpha and TNFR-I in the establishment of spleen FDC and GC structure by using reciprocal bone marrow (BM)(More)
Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutation is responsible for the development of autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy, an organ-specific autoimmune disease with monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. AIRE is predominantly expressed in medullary epithelial cells of the thymus and is considered to play important roles in the(More)
Parkin is a multifunctional protein, including maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that Parkin is recruited from the cytoplasm to damaged mitochondria with low membrane potential. We found that intracellular localization of Parkin changed with cellular growth phase. Parkin was preferentially localized in the mitochondria of(More)