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In mice deficient in either lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) or the type I tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor, but not the type II TNF receptor, germinal centers failed to develop in peripheral lymphoid organs. Germinal center formation was restored in LT-alpha-deficient mice by transplantation of normal bone marrow, indicating that the LT-alpha-expressing(More)
The microenvironments of the thymus are generated by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and are essential for inducing immune self-tolerance or developing T cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the differentiation of TECs and thymic compartmentalization are not fully understood. Here we show that deficiency in the tumor necrosis factor(More)
Expression of the p16(Ink4a) tumor suppressor gene, a sensor of oncogenic stress, is up-regulated by a variety of potentially oncogenic stimuli in cultured primary cells. However, because p16(Ink4a) expression is also induced by tissue culture stress, physiological mechanisms regulating p16(Ink4a) expression remain unclear. To eliminate any potential(More)
Affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation is thought to occur within germinal centres. Mice deficient in lymphotoxin-alpha (LT alpha-/- mice) have no lymph nodes or Peyer's patches, and fail to form germinal centres in the spleen. We tested whether germinal centres are essential for maturation of antibody responses to T-cell-dependent antigens. LT(More)
The roles of autoimmune regulator (Aire)-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) in the organization of the thymic microenvironment for establishing self-tolerance are enigmatic. We sought to monitor the production and maintenance of Aire-expressing mTECs by a fate-mapping strategy in which bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (Tg) mice(More)
The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family has important roles in microbial recognition and dendritic cell activation. TLRs 7 and 9 can recognize nucleic acids and trigger signalling cascades that activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells to produce interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) (refs 7, 8). TLR7/9-mediated dendritic cell activation is critical for antiviral immunity(More)
LT ␣-deficient (LT ␣ ϪրϪ) mice show altered splenic microarchitecture. This includes loss of normal B cell–T cell compartmentalization, of follicular dendritic cell (FDC) clusters, and of ability to form germinal centers (GC). LT ␣ ϪրϪ mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced high levels of antigen-specific IgM but no IgG in either primary(More)
In mice deficient in either lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) or type I tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR-I), organized clusters of follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and germinal centers (GC) are absent from the spleen. We investigated the role of LT-alpha and TNFR-I in the establishment of spleen FDC and GC structure by using reciprocal bone marrow (BM)(More)
The roles of autoimmune regulator (Aire) in the expression of the diverse arrays of tissue-restricted antigen (TRA) genes from thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (medullary thymic epithelial cells [mTECs]) and in organization of the thymic microenvironment are enigmatic. We approached this issue by creating a mouse strain in which the coding sequence of(More)
Both nuclear factor (NF)-␬ B–inducing kinase (NIK) and inhibitor of ␬ B (I ␬ B) kinase (IKK) have been implicated as essential components for NF-␬ B activation in response to many external stimuli. However, the exact roles of NIK and IKK ␣ in cytokine signaling still remain controversial. With the use of in vivo mouse models, rather than with enforced(More)