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The effects of neurotrophic factors on translational activation were investigated in cortical neurons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increased protein synthesis within 30 min, whereas insulin produced a weaker enhancement of protein synthesis. BDNF-triggered protein synthesis was inhibited by LY294002, PD98059, and rapamycin, whereas the effect(More)
It remains controversial whether the left inferior frontal gyrus subserves syntactic processing or short-term memory demands. Here we devised a novel picture-sentence matching task involving Japanese sentences with different structures to clearly contrast syntactic reanalysis processes. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),(More)
We report three patients with selective topographic disorientation due to small, focal hemorrhages extending from the right retrosplenial region to the medial parietal lobe. All three could discriminate and identify familiar buildings and landscapes, but had great difficulty remembering spatial positional relationships between two distant locations (i.e.,(More)
We report the case of a 55 year-old right-handed man who presented with a long lasting pure word deafness following left thalamic bleeding. There was no sign of aphasia. The auditory deficit was specific for language, while recognition of music and environmental sounds was normal. CT, MRI and PET examinations showed that the lesion was anatomically and(More)
There is contradictory evidence regarding whether the impairments of the recognition of emotional facial expressions in Parkinson's disease are specific to certain emotions such as disgust and fear. Generally, neurological case reports on emotion-specific impairments have been suspected of being confounded with the factor of task difficulty. Using a refined(More)
Studies using the Iowa gambling task (IGT) have shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) make disadvantageous choices characterized by immediate large rewards and delayed larger punishments. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either PD patients are hypersensitive to immediate outcomes and/or insensitive to delayed consequences or PD(More)
Cochlear endolymph has a highly positive potential of approximately +80 mV. This so-called endocochlear potential (EP) is essential for hearing. Although pivotal roles of K+ channels in the formation of EP have been suggested, the types and distribution of K+ channels in cochlea have not been characterized. Because EP was depressed by vascular perfusion of(More)
We used MRI studies of four patients to investigate the lesions responsible for landmark agnosia. A detailed investigation of the relationship between the symptoms and the lesions suggests that the right posterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information about buildings and landscapes, and that the same region(More)
Although the basal ganglia are thought to be important in recognizing emotion, there is contradictory evidence as to whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have deficits in recognizing facial expressions. In addition, few studies have examined their ability to recognize emotion from non-visual stimuli, such as voices. We examined the ability of PD(More)
The dynamics of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors, as represented by their exocytosis, endocytosis and cytoskeletal linkage, has often been implicated in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent synaptic plasticity. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the AMPA receptor dynamics, cultured(More)