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It remains controversial whether the left inferior frontal gyrus subserves syntactic processing or short-term memory demands. Here we devised a novel picture-sentence matching task involving Japanese sentences with different structures to clearly contrast syntactic reanalysis processes. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),(More)
There is contradictory evidence regarding whether the impairments of the recognition of emotional facial expressions in Parkinson's disease are specific to certain emotions such as disgust and fear. Generally, neurological case reports on emotion-specific impairments have been suspected of being confounded with the factor of task difficulty. Using a refined(More)
Studies using the Iowa gambling task (IGT) have shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) make disadvantageous choices characterized by immediate large rewards and delayed larger punishments. These results can be interpreted in two ways: either PD patients are hypersensitive to immediate outcomes and/or insensitive to delayed consequences or PD(More)
We used MRI studies of four patients to investigate the lesions responsible for landmark agnosia. A detailed investigation of the relationship between the symptoms and the lesions suggests that the right posterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information about buildings and landscapes, and that the same region(More)
Although the basal ganglia are thought to be important in recognizing emotion, there is contradictory evidence as to whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have deficits in recognizing facial expressions. In addition, few studies have examined their ability to recognize emotion from non-visual stimuli, such as voices. We examined the ability of PD(More)
Recent studies suggest that social recognition processes are affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether PD patients exhibit behavioral changes is still controversial. The purpose of the present study was to examine the decision making of PD patients performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We recruited a large number of early, nondemented PD(More)
A right-handed Japanese man with no consanguinity exhibited personality changes, speech disorder and abnormal behaviors, such as stereotypical, running-away, environment-dependent, and going-my-way behaviors, since the age of 49 years. At age 52 years, neuropsychological examination revealed frontal lobe dysfunctions, mild memory impairment, and(More)
To investigate the neuropsychological mechanisms of kinesthetic alexia, we asked 7 patients who showed kinesthetic alexia with preserved visual reading after damage to the left parietal region to perform tasks consisting of kinesthetic written reproduction (writing down the same letter as the kinesthetic stimulus), kinesthetic reading aloud, visual written(More)
Some patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) have shown the development of painting or musical abilities after the onset of the disease. In this report, we present another emergent ability. A female patient with FTLD showing dense atrophy of the bilateral anterior lobes and a loss of voluntary activity in aspects of daily living, presented(More)
The present study demonstrated that individuals with Parkinson's disease display impairments in making profitable decisions, as evidenced by poorer performance on the Iowa Gambling Task relative to matched controls. The ability to make beneficial judgments solely correlates with ability to appropriately attribute internal mental-state to other people, as(More)