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Novel adjuvants and antigen-delivery systems with immunomodulatory properties that shift the allergenic Th2 response towards a Th1 or regulatory T cell response are desired for allergen-specific immunotherapy. This study demonstrates that 200-nm sized biodegradable poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are activators of human(More)
Nanotechnology is a fundamental technology for designing and generating innovative carriers for biomacromolecular drugs. Biodegradable poly(gamma-glutamic acid)-based nanoparticles (gamma-PGA NPs) are excellent vaccine carriers capable of delivering antigenic proteins to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and eliciting potent immune responses based on(More)
The mucoadhesion of polystyrene nanoparticles having surface hydrophilic polymeric chains in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was investigated in rats. Radiolabeled nanoparticles were synthesized by adding hydrophobic 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine in the final process of nanoparticle preparation. The radioiodonated diazirine seemed to(More)
Subcutaneous immunization with an influenza hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine can induce the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies, but not a cell-mediated immune response. Here we tested whether amphiphilic poly(gamma-glutamic acid)-graft-l-phenylalanine copolymers (gamma-PGA-NPs), which are derived from a bacterial capsular exopolymer produced by certain(More)
Induction of an adaptive immune response by vaccination is possible for a broad range of infectious diseases or cancers. Antigen-loaded polymeric nanoparticles have recently been shown to possess significant potential as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants. Here we demonstrate the use of nanoparticles composed of amphiphilic poly(amino acid) derivatives(More)
Therapeutic agents based on DNA or RNA oligonucleotides (e.g., antisense DNA oligonucleotide, small interfering RNA) require a regulation of their kinetics in cytoplasm to maintain an optimal concentration during the treatment period. In this respect, delivery of functional nanoparticles containing these drugs into cytoplasm has been thought to have a(More)
Three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs consisting of human cells have opened a new avenue for tissue engineering, pharmaceutical and pathophysiological applications, and have great potential to estimate the dynamic pharmacological effects of drug candidates, metastasis processes of cancer cells, and toxicity expression of nano-materials, as a 3D-human(More)
In an attempt to enhance the immunological efficacy of genetic immunization, we investigated a new biological means for delivering antigen gene directly to the cytoplasm via membrane fusion. In this context, we investigated fusogenic liposome (FL) encapsulating DNA as a possible genetic immunization vehicle. RT-PCR analysis indicated that a FL could(More)
Mucosal secretory IgA is considered to have an important role in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission through sexual intercourse. Therefore, substances that induce HIV-1-specific IgA antibody in the genital tract may become promising candidates for prophylactic vaccine against HIV-1 infection. We have previously(More)
Antigen delivery systems using polymeric nanoparticles are of special interest as stable protein-based antigen carriers. In the present study, novel biodegradable poly(gamma-glutamic acid) (gamma-PGA) nanoparticles were examined for their antigen delivery and immunostimulatory activities in vitro and in vivo. The uptake of ovalbumin by dendritic cells was(More)