Mitsuomi Hirashima

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Galectins are widely distributed sugar-binding proteins whose basic specificity for beta-galactosides is conserved by evolutionarily preserved carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). Although they have long been believed to be involved in diverse biological phenomena critical for multicellular organisms, in only few a cases has it been proved that their in(More)
Interaction between endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes and vascular smooth muscle) is essential for vascular development and maintenance. Endothelial cells arise from Flk1-expressing (Flk1+) mesoderm cells, whereas mural cells are believed to derive from mesoderm, neural crest or epicardial cells and migrate to form the vessel wall. Difficulty in(More)
Totipotent murine ES cells have an enormous potential for the study of cell specification. Here we demonstrate that ES cells can differentiate to hemopoietic cells through the proximal lateral mesoderm, merely upon culturing in type IV collagen-coated dishes. Separation of the Flk1+ mesoderm from other cell lineages was critical for hemopoietic cell(More)
CD4+ T helper 1 (TH1) cells are important mediators of inflammation and are regulated by numerous pathways, including the negative immune receptor Tim-3. We found that Tim-3 is constitutively expressed on cells of the innate immune system in both mice and humans, and that it can synergize with Toll-like receptors. Moreover, an antibody agonist of Tim-3(More)
A primitive vascular plexus is formed through coordinated regulation of differentiation, proliferation, migration, and cell-cell adhesion of endothelial cell (EC) progenitors. In this study, a culture system was devised to investigate the behavior of purified EC progenitors in vitro. Because Flk-1(+) cells derived from ES cells did not initially express(More)
Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Their malignant epithelial cells contain the viral genome and express several antigenic viral proteins. However, the mechanisms of immune escape in NPCs are still poorly understood. EBV-transformed B-cells have been reported to release exosomes carrying the(More)
Galectin-3 is a beta-galactoside-binding protein implicated in diverse biological processes. We found that galectin-3 induced human monocyte migration in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and it was chemotactic at high concentrations (1.0 microM) but chemokinetic at low concentrations (10-100 nM). Galectin-3-induced monocyte migration was inhibited by its(More)
The mechanisms by which tumor microenvironments modulate nucleic acid–mediated innate immunity remain unknown. Here we identify the receptor TIM-3 as key in circumventing the stimulatory effects of nucleic acids in tumor immunity. Tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs) in mouse tumors and patients with cancer had high expression of TIM-3. DC-derived TIM-3(More)
The effects of galectin-9 on a mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model were assessed to clarify whether galectin-9 suppresses CIA by regulating T cell immune responses. Galectin-9 suppressed CIA in a dose-dependent manner, and such suppression was observed even when treatment was started on 7 days after the booster, indicating its preventive and(More)
Tumor-associated immune suppression can lead to defective T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Here, we identified a unique phenotype of exhausted T cells in mice with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This phenotype is characterized by the coexpression of Tim-3 and PD-1 on CD8(+) T cells in the liver, the major first site of AML metastases. PD-1(More)