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We used the knockout mice lacking gangliosides and evaluated their response to tetanus and botulinum toxins. We found that tetanus toxin and botulinum type A or B toxin was less toxic in the knockout mice. We conclude that the toxins bind to the gangliosides on the synapses in the initial step of intoxication prior to penetration of the toxins into the(More)
An extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is generated by power lines and household electrical devices. Many studies have suggested an association between chronic ELF-MF exposure and anxiety and/or depression. The mechanism of these effects is assumed to be a stress response induced by ELF-MF exposure. However, this mechanism remains controversial.(More)
The goal of this study was to determine whether dopamine D2 and/or D1 receptors in the shell and the core of the nucleus accumbens of rats have a differential role in turning behaviour. Unilateral injection of a mixture of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (10 micrograms) and the dopamine D1 receptor agonist(More)
The role of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor stimulation in the production of turning behaviour in rats was studied. In rats pretreated with unilateral injections of the non-selective dopamine D1/D2 receptor antagonist, cis(Z)-flupentixol (10 micrograms/0.5 microliter), into the ventral striatum, quinpirole (1, 3, 5, 10 mg/kg i.p.), a selective dopamine D2(More)
The first goal of this study was to investigate whether turning behaviour elicited by unilateral injections of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the shell of the nucleus accumbens differs from that elicited by similar injections into the core of this nucleus, and to compare the behavioural effects with the known effects of such injections of the(More)
We recently demonstrated that a topical application of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2; bFGF) to alveolar bone defects in beagle dogs enhanced periodontal regeneration. The purpose of this study was further characterization of the biological effects of FGF-2 in non-human primates. Thirty-two inflamed furcation class II defects were surgically created(More)
The ability of GABA(A) receptors in the ventral pallidum to modulate shell-specific behavior was studied. Injections of the non-selective acetylcholine receptor agonist, carbachol (5 microg), into the shell of the nucleus accumbens elicited contraversive circling, namely turning marked by normal stepping; in contrast, injections of a mixture of dopamine(More)
This study was made to explain the mechanisms for the effects of exposure to a time varying 1.51 T magnetic field on the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling pathway. The exposure inhibited an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in bovine chromaffin cells induced by addition of bradykinin (BK) to a Ca(2+) free medium. The exposure did not(More)
The binding ability of Cl. botulinum neurotoxin to synaptosomes upon treatment with various enzymes (neuraminidase, trypsin, and beta-bungarotoxin containing phospholipase A2 activity) was studied. When synaptosomes were treated with neuraminidase, their ability to bind toxin decreased; trypsin and beta-bungarotoxin had slightly week or no effect. The(More)