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Riluzole is an antiexcitotoxic agent used for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and reported to have neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and brain ischemia. We investigated the effects of riluzole on synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell(More)
We present a sharp interface method for computing incompressible immiscible two-phase flows. It couples the level-set and volume-of-fluid techniques and retains their advantages while overcoming their weaknesses. It is stable and robust even for large density and viscosity ratios on the order of 1000 to 1. The numerical method is an extension of the second(More)
We investigated the effects of selegiline and desmethylselegiline on synthesis of neurotrophic factors in cultured mouse astrocytes. Treatment with 2 mM selegiline for 24 h increased the contents of NGF, BDNF, and GDNF in the culture medium 26-, 1.7-, and 4.2-fold over the control, respectively. With this drug the maximum relative mRNA levels of NGF, BDNF,(More)
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-4 mRNA in the adult rat brain is expressed preferentially in the medial habenular nucleus. In this paper, we examined the expression of FGFR-4 mRNA in the brain during postnatal development. Interestingly, in addition to the persistent expression of FGFR-4 mRNA in the medial habenular nucleus, FGFR-4 mRNA was(More)
We have examined the region-specific expression of mRNAs for four members of rat FGF receptor family, FGFR-1, FGFR-2 FGFR-3, and FGFR-4, in rat brain by in situ hybridization. The FGFR-1, FGFR-2, and FGFR-3 mRNAs were expressed widely but differentially in the brain. However, the FGFR-4 mRNA was not expressed in the brain. The FGFR-1 mRNA was strongly(More)
NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, is involved in the expression of numerous detoxifying and antioxidant genes via the antioxidant response element (ARE). Apomorphine (Apo), a dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor agonist, is used for clinical therapy of Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, Apo is a potent radical scavenger(More)
In Parkinson's disease, cell death is selectively induced in mesencephalic nigral dopaminergic neurons. At present, no disease modifying therapy or radical treatment has been found for this disease. Some dopamine agonists may have a neuroprotective action in cultured cells and animal models. In the present study, we examined stimulating effects of a(More)
Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress caused by dopamine could be closely involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is known as a strong inducer of phase II detoxification enzymes which have antioxidative functions. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of tBHQ against(More)
Apomorphine, a D1/D2 dopamine agonist, is an anti-parkinsonian drug. We examined the effects of apomorphine on synthesis of neurotrophic factors in cultured mouse astrocytes. After 24 h incubation with apomorphine, NGF and GDNF contents in the culture medium increased to 122-fold and 1.8-fold of the control, respectively; whereas the BDNF content did not(More)