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FKBP ligand homodimers can be used to activate signaling events inside cells and animals that have been engineered to express fusions between appropriate signaling domains and FKBP. However, use of these dimerizers in vivo is potentially limited by ligand binding to endogenous FKBP. We have designed ligands that bind specifically to a mutated FKBP over the(More)
The crystal structure of the tandem SH2 domains of human ZAP-70 in complex with a peptide derived from the zeta-subunit of the T-cell receptor reveals an unanticipated interaction between the two domains. A coiled coil of alpha-helices connects the two SH2 domains, producing an interface that constitutes one of the two critical phosphotyrosine binding(More)
Human interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) exerts its diverse biological effects by binding to specific receptors on target cells. Two types of IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) have been identified: the type I IL-1R (p80) and the type II IL-1R (p68). Using site-specific mutagenesis, we have identified the binding site on IL-1 beta for the murine type I IL-1R. Analogs of the(More)
Chemically induced dimerization provides a general way to gain control over intracellular processes. Typically, FK506-binding protein (FKBP) domains are fused to a signaling domain of interest, allowing crosslinking to be initiated by addition of a bivalent FKBP ligand. In the course of protein engineering studies on human FKBP, we discovered that a single(More)
The interleukin 1 (IL-1) family of proteins has a central role in modulating immune and inflammatory responses. Two major IL-1 proteins, designated alpha (IL-1 alpha) and beta (IL-1 beta), are produced by activated macrophages and other cell types. In an effort to understand the similarities and differences in the physicochemical and functional properties(More)
Targeted disruption of the pp60(src) (Src) gene has implicated this tyrosine kinase in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and as a therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases. Herein we describe the discovery of a nonpeptide inhibitor (AP22408) of Src that demonstrates in vivo antiresorptive activity. Based on a(More)