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PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator induced by exercise that gives muscle many of the best known adaptations to endurance-type exercise but has no effects on muscle strength or hypertrophy. We have identified a form of PGC-1α (PGC-1α4) that results from alternative promoter usage and splicing of the primary transcript. PGC-1α4 is highly expressed in(More)
Pathological and physiological stimuli, including acute exercise, activate autophagy; however, it is unknown whether exercise training alters basal levels of autophagy and whether autophagy is required for skeletal muscle adaptation to training. We observed greater autophagy flux (i.e., a combination of increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and LC3-II levels and(More)
We investigated the effects of an Ironman triathlon race on markers of muscle damage, inflammation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Nine well-trained male triathletes (mean ± SD age 34 ± 5 years; V̇O2peak 66.4 ml kg−1 min−1) participated in the 2004 Western Australia Ironman triathlon race (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, 42.2 km run). We assessed jump height,(More)
Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1alpha changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1alpha is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations(More)
Muscle atrophy is caused by accelerated protein degradation and occurs in many pathological states. Two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx/atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1), are prominently induced during muscle atrophy and mediate atrophy-associated protein degradation. Blocking the expression of these two ubiquitin ligases provides(More)
We investigated the influence of rectal temperature on the immune system during and after exercise. Ten well-trained male cyclists completed exercise trials (90 min cycling at 60% $$ \ifmmode\expandafter\dot\else\expandafter\.\fi{V}{\text{O}}_{{2\max }} + \;{\kern 1pt} 16.1{\text{ - km}} $$ time trial) on three separate occasions: once in 18°C and twice in(More)
Skeletal muscle exhibits superb plasticity in response to changes in functional demands. Chronic increases of skeletal muscle contractile activity, such as endurance exercise, lead to a variety of physiological and biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle, including mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and fiber type transformation. These adaptive(More)
Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years) participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training.(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals, oxygen ions, and peroxides, are implicated in cell damage. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the spontaneous production of ROS from neutrophils changes with age and is associated with the conventional inflammatory markers. Thirty-seven elderly subjects (median age, 87, range 70–95(More)
This review examines the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of the immune system to understand the alteration of immunological parameters under the influence of stressors and exercise. Sympathetic innervation in secondary lymphoid organs plays a major role in immune regulation. Catecholamine released from the nerve terminal serves as the(More)