Mitsue Miyao

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When plants are exposed to light levels higher than those required for photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species are generated in the chloroplasts and cause photodamage. This can occur even under natural growth conditions. To mitigate photodamage, plants have developed several protective mechanisms. One is chloroplast avoidance movement, in which chloroplasts(More)
The majority of terrestrial plants, including many important crops such as rice, wheat, soybean, and potato, are classified as C(3) plants that assimilate atmospheric CO(2) directly through the C(3) photosynthetic pathway. C(4) plants, such as maize and sugarcane, evolved from C(3) plants, acquiring the C(4) photosynthetic pathway in addition to the C(3)(More)
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was overproduced in the leaves of rice plants by introducing the intact maize C4-specific PEPC gene. Maize PEPC in transgenic rice leaves underwent activity regulation through protein phosphorylation in a manner similar to endogenous rice PEPC but contrary to that occurring in maize leaves, being downregulated in the(More)
The transfer of C(4) plant traits into C(3) plants has long been a strategy for improving the photosynthetic performance of C(3) plants. The introduction of a pathway mimicking the C(4) photosynthetic pathway into the mesophyll cells of C(3) plants was only a realistic approach when transgenic technology was sufficiently well developed and widely adopted.(More)
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is a key enzyme of primary metabolism in bacteria, algae, and vascular plants, and is believed to be cytosolic. Here we show that rice (Oryza sativa L.) has a plant-type PEPC, Osppc4, that is targeted to the chloroplast. Osppc4 was expressed in all organs tested and showed high expression in the leaves. Its expression(More)
Four enzymes, namely, the maize C(4)-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), the maize C(4)-specific pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), the sorghum NADP-malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and the rice C(3)-specific NADP-malic enzyme (ME), were overproduced in the mesophyll cells of rice plants independently or in combination. Overproduction(More)
NPR1 is a central regulator of salicylic-acid (SA)-mediated defense signaling in Arabidopsis. Here, we report the characterization of OsNPR1, an Oryzae sativa (rice) ortholog of NPR1, focusing on its role in blast disease resistance and identification of OsNPR1-regulated genes. Blast resistance tests using OsNPR1 knockdown and overexpressing rice lines(More)
Under photoinhibitory illumination of spinach PSII membranes, the oxygen-evolving complex subunits, OEC33, 24 and 18, were released from PSII. The liberated OEC33 and also OEC24 to a lesser extent were subsequently damaged and then exhibited smeared bands in SDS/urea-PAGE. Once deteriorated, OEC33 could not bind to PSII. The effects of scavengers and(More)
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), a key enzyme of primary metabolism of higher plants, is regulated by reversible phosphorylation, which is catalyzed by PEPC kinase (PPCK). Rice has three functional PPCK genes, OsPPCK1, OsPPCK2 and OsPPCK3, all of which have an intron close to the 3' end of the coding region. A novel control mechanism was found for(More)
The D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center turns over the most rapidly of all the proteins of the thylakoid membrane under illumination in vivo. In vitro, the D1 protein sustained cleavage in a surface-exposed loop (DE loop) or cross-linking with another reaction center protein, the D2 protein or cytochrome b(559), under illumination. We found(More)