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Free heme is very toxic because it generates highly reactive hydroxyl radicals ((.)OH) to cause oxidative damage. Detoxification of free heme by the heme oxygenase (HO) system is a very common phenomenon by which free heme is catabolized to form bilirubin as an end product. Interestingly, the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, lacks an HO system, but(More)
We showed earlier that malarial infection significantly induces liver apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress mechanisms. Thus, a nontoxic antioxidant-antiapoptotic molecule may be beneficial for hepatoprotection. Melatonin remarkably prevents hepatocyte apoptosis in mice induced during malaria as indicated by caspase 3 and TUNEL assays as well as(More)
Digestion of hemoglobin in the food vacuole of the malaria parasite produces very high quantities of redox active toxic free heme. Hemozoin (beta-hematin) formation is a unique process adopted by Plasmodium sp. to detoxify free heme. Hemozoin formation is a validated target for most of the well-known existing antimalarial drugs and considered to be a(More)
Hepatic dysfunction is a common clinical complication in malaria, although its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Using a variety of in vivo and ex vivo approaches, we have shown for the first time that malarial infection induces hepatic apoptosis through augmentation of oxidative stress. Apoptosis in hepatocyte has been confirmed by terminal(More)
Choline kinase is the first enzyme in the Kennedy pathway (CDP-choline pathway) for the biosynthesis of the most essential phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, in Plasmodium falciparum. In addition, choline kinase also plays a pivotal role in trapping essential polar head group choline inside the malaria parasite. Recently, Plasmodium falciparum choline(More)
The gene WFS1 encodes a protein with unknown function although its functional deficiency causes different neuropsychiatric and neuroendocrine syndromes. In the present study, we aimed to find the functional networks influenced by the time-dependent silencing of WFS1 in HEK cells. We performed whole genome gene expression profiling (Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays)(More)
Generation of phosphocholine by choline kinase is important for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis via Kennedy pathway and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis is essential for intraerythrocytic growth of malaria parasite. A putative gene (Gene ID PF14_0020) in chromosome 14, having highest sequence homology with choline kinase, has been identified by BLAST(More)
A series of [(aryl)arylsufanylmethyl]pyridines (AASMP) have been synthesized. These compounds inhibited hemozoin formation, formed complexes (K(D) = 12 to 20 muM) with free heme (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) at a pH close to the pH of the parasite food vacuole, and exhibited antimalarial activity in vitro. The inhibition of hemozoin formation may develop(More)
Autoimmune regulator (Aire) has a unique expression pattern in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTECs), in which it plays a critical role in the activation of tissue-specific antigens. The expression of Aire in mTECs is activated by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) signaling; however, the molecular mechanism behind this activation is(More)
Digestion of hemoglobin in the food vacuole of the malaria parasite produces very high quantities of redox active toxic free heme. Hemozoin (β-hematin) formation is a unique process adopted by Plasmodium sp. to detoxify free heme. Hemozoin formation is a validated target for most of the well-known existing antimalarial drugs and considered to be a suitable(More)