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The NF-kappa B-like Relish gene is complex, with four transcripts that are all located within an intron of the Nmdmc gene. Using deletion mutants, we show that Relish is specifically required for the induction of the humoral immune response, including both antibacterial and antifungal peptides. As a result, the Relish mutants are very sensitive to(More)
NF-kappa B/Rel transcription factors are central regulators of mammalian immunity and are also implicated in the induction of cecropins and other antibacterial peptides in insects. We identified the gene for Relish, a compound Drosophila protein that, like mammalian p105 and p100, contains both a Rel homology domain and an I kappa B-like domain. Relish is(More)
Mutations at the disconnected (disco) locus in Drosophila melanogaster cause cultures of this insect to eclose in an essentially arrhythmic manner and also nearly eliminate free-running circadian rhythms of locomotor activity. Yet disco mutants are not totally light-insensitive: Whereas they performed very poorly in tests of certain behavioral responses to(More)
Certain of the rhythm mutations in Drosophila melanogaster lead to arrhythmic locomotor activity (and aperiodic eclosion) in constant conditions. In light-dark (LD) cycles, however, such mutants exhibit clear fluctuations between high levels of activity when the lights are on and much lower ones when they are off. Our data, in contrast to some previous(More)
The ability to react to unfavorable environmental changes is crucial for survival and reproduction, and several adaptive responses to stress have been conserved during evolution [1-3]. Specific immune and heat shock responses mediate the elimination of invading pathogens and of damaged proteins or cells [4-6]. Furthermore, MAP kinases and other signaling(More)
Clock is a semidominant X-linked mutation that results in shortening the period of Drosophila melanogaster's free-running locomotor activity rhythm from ca. 24.0 to ca. 22.5 hr. This mutation similarly shortened the phase response curve, determined by resetting activity rhythms with light pulses. Eclosion peaks for Clk cultures were separated by only 22.5(More)
We are using the PCR-based differential display technique to isolate genes which are induced during the immune response in Drosophila. In this way, a cDNA clone for a member of the attacin family of antibacterial proteins was isolated. The corresponding Attacin A (Att A) gene is localized at 51A-B on the second chromosome, and it is closely linked to at(More)
Clotting is critical in limiting loss of hemolymph and initiating wound healing in insects as well as in vertebrates. Clotting is also an important immune defense, quickly forming a secondary barrier to infection, thereby immobilizing, and possibly killing bacteria directly. Here, we describe methods to assess clotting and to extract the clot from(More)
The Clock (Clk) mutation shortens circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and eclosion from ca. 24 h to 22.5-23 h. Clk was previously mapped, by meiotic recombination, very close to the period(per) locus on the X chromosome. To determine whether Clk is a mutation within the per gene or if the former is separate from the latter, two overlapping genomic(More)
Components of the insect clot, an extremely rapid forming and critical part of insect immunity, are just beginning to be identified (1). Here we present a proteomic comparison of larval hemolymph before and after clotting to learn more about this process. This approach was supplemented by the identification of substrates for the enzyme transglutaminase,(More)