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OBJECTIVE The application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bursts at theta frequencies (TBS) may produce lasting neuroplastic changes in the human cortex. However, there exists high variability in subjects' responses, possibly due to non-optimal stimulation characteristics. Here we compare the efficacy of two variations of(More)
There is some limited evidence suggesting that the spaced application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols may extend the duration of induced neuroplastic changes. However, this has yet to be demonstrated in the human primary motor cortex (M1). We evaluated whether the paired application of an inhibitory rTMS protocol [continuous(More)
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is the most prominent, dynamic and variable part of the circadian pattern of cortisol secretion. Despite this, its precise purpose is unknown. Aberrant patterns of the CAR are associated with impaired physical and mental health and reduced cognitive function, suggesting that it may have a pervasive role or roles. It has(More)
Regular physical activity can have positive effects on brain function and plasticity. Indeed, there is some limited evidence that even a single bout of exercise may promote plasticity within the cortex. However, the mechanisms by which exercise acutely promotes plasticity are not clear. To further explore the effects of acute exercise on cortical function,(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) exhibit considerable trial-to-trial variability, potentially reducing the sensitivity and reproducibility of this measure. While increasing the number of trials will improve accuracy, prolonged recording blocks are not always feasible. In this study, we investigated the minimum(More)
Advancing age is associated with cognitive and motor performance deficits and a reduced capacity for plasticity. Zimerman and colleagues (Zimerman M, Nitsch M, Giraux P, Gerloff C, Cohen LG, Hummel FC. Ann Neurol 73: 10-15, 2013) have recently shown that noninvasive brain stimulation can enhance behavioral improvements following training on a motor sequence(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the human primary motor cortex (M1) induces long-term depression (LTD)-like plastic changes in corticospinal excitability, but several studies have reported high inter-subject variability of this effect. Most studies use a tonic voluntary contraction of the target muscle before cTBS to set stimulation(More)
The long-term depression (LTD)-like changes in human primary motor cortex (M1) excitability induced by continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) are subject to reversal (i.e., de-depression) following behavioral engagement of M1, limiting its therapeutic potential under behaviorally relevant conditions. Experiments in animals suggest that the repeated,(More)
BACKGROUND The potential of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) for studying, and inducing, functionally relevant neuroplasticity is dependent on protocols that can induce lasting, robust and reliable effects. A current limiting factor is the large inter- and intra-subject variability in NIBS-induced neuroplastic responses. There has been some study of(More)