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Following the events of September 11, 2001, in the United States, world public awareness for possible terrorist attacks on water supply systems has increased dramatically. Among the different threats for a water distribution system, the most difficult to address is a deliberate chemical or biological contaminant injection, due to both the uncertainty of the(More)
Statistical models are developed for bromine incorporation in the trihalomethane (THM), trihaloacetic acids (THAA), dihaloacetic acid (DHAA), and dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) subclasses of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) using distribution system samples from plants applying only free chlorine as a primary or residual disinfectant in the Information Collection(More)
A dynamic risk model is developed to track the occurrence and evolution of a drinking-water-borne cryptosporidiosis outbreak. The model characterizes and integrates the various environmental, medical, institutional, and behavioral factors that determine outbreak development and outcome. These include contaminant delivery and detection, water treatment(More)
Drinking water disinfection by-product (DBP) occurrence research is important in supporting risk assessment and regulatory performance assessment. Recent DBP occurrence surveys have expanded their scope to include non-regulated priority DBPs as well as regulated DBPs. This study applies a Box-Cox transformed multivariate normal model and data augmentation(More)
This paper examines the link between the ambient level of particulate pollution and subsequent human health effects and various sources of uncertainty when total exposure is taken into consideration. The exposure simulation model statistically simulates daily personal total exposure to ambient PM and nonambient PM generated from indoor sources. It(More)
OBJECTIVE Patients with chronic idiopathic vulvar vestibulitis have increased mast cells when biopsied, and cromolyn has been suggested as a treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of 4% cromolyn cream in women with vulvar vestibulitis. METHODS A prospective, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study was initiated at two(More)
A methodology that simulates outcomes from future data collection programs, utilizes Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis to predict the resulting reduction in uncertainty in an environmental fate-and-transport model, and estimates the expected value of this reduction in uncertainty to a risk-based environmental remediation decision is illustrated considering(More)
Communication about risks offers a voluntary approach to reducing exposure to pollutants. Its adequacy depends on its impact on behavior. Estimating those impacts first requires characterizing current activities and their associated risk levels, and then predicting the effectiveness of risk-reduction strategies. Characterizing the risks from chemical(More)