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Injection drug use is a common risk behavior for HIV infection among homeless, runaway and street youths. However, the psychosocial histories and current social environment of these youths are not well understood. The authors recruited 186 homeless, runaway and street youths using systematic street-based sampling methods, and assessed psychosocial(More)
BACKGROUND In persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Cryptosporidium parvum causes a prolonged, severe diarrheal illness to which there is no effective treatment, and the risk of developing cryptosporidiosis from drinking tap water in non-outbreak settings remains uncertain. To test the hypothesis that drinking tap water was associated with(More)
A functional classification of seizure impairment was described and its distribution examined in a population classified as mentally retarded in childhood and followed to age 22. Twenty-five percent of the sample had some history of seizures up to age 22. Seizure histories were found for 19 percent of these retarded persons in the preschool years and 13(More)
Many clinical readers, especially those uncomfortable with mathematics, treat published multivariable models as a black box, accepting the author's explanation of the results. However, multivariable analysis can be understood without undue concern for the underlying mathematics. This paper reviews the basics of multivariable analysis, including what(More)
BACKGROUND Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and(More)
BACKGROUND A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for(More)
The relationship between behavior disturbance in childhood and the early adult years was examined for a population of mildly retarded young people. Behavior disturbance was also examined in relation to upbringing experiences and whether or not treatment was received in childhood. Relationships found were different for males and females.
This study examines the relative effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (ten sessions), fluoxetine (20 mg daily) and combined therapy (CBT plus fluoxetine) in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). This was a randomized pragmatic treatment trial with three treatment cells. Treatment lasted for 6 months; a naturalistic follow-up was(More)